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StealthJester
Post subject: Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:Posted: October 15th, 2021, 7:57 pm
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Posts: 177
Joined: December 22nd, 2014, 12:25 am
Location: Spokane Valley, Washington, US
Greetings!

After dealing with life, medical issues, and a bout of COVID, I am back - I have put aside the War of the Americas AU for awhile and will be presenting the following new project:

Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:

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General Information:

Official name: Heerschappij van Nusantara (HvN)

Established: March 17, 1822 (“Foundation Day” – celebrated as a national holiday)

Official languages: Dutch, Malay, Javanese

Flag: Horizontal tricolor of blue, white, and orange with the national motto “Welvaart, Ijver, Vrijheid” (“Prosperity, Diligence, Freedom”) in black centered on the middle (white) stripe.

Government: Constitutional parliamentary democracy.

Capital: Batavia

Unit of currency: Gulden (abbrev. Gn)

Demographics and Economy:

Population (1950): 67,457,017

GDP (PPP): 202.4 billion Gn (112.4 billion USD)

GDP: 196.8 billion Gn (109.4 billion USD)

GDP per capita (PPP): 3,000 Gn (1,667 USD)

GDP per capita: 2,918 Gn (1,621 USD)

Government budget: 30.9 billion Gn (17.2 billion USD)

Military expenditures as % of GDP: 1.30%

Military budget: 2.56 billion Gn (1.42 billion USD)

Exports: 2.18 billion Gn (1.21 billion USD)

Imports: 1.34 billion Gn (0.74 billion USD)

Military:

Navy (August 3, 1825): Koninklijke Nusantara Marine; KNM (Royal Nusantara Navy)

Naval Ensign: National flag in the canton (upper hoist quarter) with a white field and red symmetric cross.

Naval Prefix: Koninklijke Nusantara Schip; KNS (Royal Nusantara Ship)

Marines (May 15, 1826): Koninklijke Nusantara Korps Mariniers; KNKM (Royal Nusantara Marine Corps)

Army (September 20, 1833): Koninklijke Nusantara Landmacht; KNL (Royal Nusantara Army)

Revenue-Marine (June 14, 1845): Koninklijke Nusantara Maritieme Ontvangstendienst; KNMO (Royal Nusantara Maritime Revenue Agency) – disbanded 1919

Air Force (March 11, 1915): Koninklijke Nusantara Luchtmacht; KNLu (Royal Nusantara Air Force)

Coast Guard (February 7, 1919): Koninklijke Nusantara Kustwacht; KNK (Royal Nusantara Coast Guard)

History:

Prelude:
Following the disastrous end of the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War (1780-1784), the economy of both the Netherlands and previously powerful Dutch East India Company had been devastated, with the latter dissolved by January 1, 1800. Within six years, the Batavian Republic (as the Netherlands were then known), had become a French puppet state under Napoleon known as the Kingdom of Holland. Thus control of the important colony of the East Indies passed to the French Empire and administered by the Dutch.
As the Napoleonic Wars wore on, the British moved against the East Indies as part of their campaign against the French Empire. By 1811, the British had successfully occupied Java and several other important Dutch East Indies ports gaining control of the area, which they held for another four years.

1815: Control of the East Indies is returned to the Netherlands following the end of the Napoleonic Wars under the terms of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. Two years later, the Dutch had regained full control of Java and other parts of the archipelago and began rapidly expanding their rule over other independent polities within the East Indies beginning with Sumatra.

1818: Emiel Thijssen, a young merchant and son of an expatriate Dutch father and Javanese mother, seeing the growing resentment in his adopted homeland among the indigenous peoples living under Dutch rule and fearing potential uprisings, embarks on a bold effort to gain independence for the East Indies. Working with the leaders of major East Indies ethnic groups such as the Javanese, Sudanese, and Malay, as well as the emigrant and expatriate Dutch population, Thijssen begins building support for a (hopefully) peaceful split with the Netherlands government through the creation of a self-governing sovereign nation and convenes a constitutional convention in the township of Surabaya in June of 1819.

1819: In September, the Surabaya Convention adopts the name “Nusantara” for the proposed nation at Thijssen's suggestion. The name originated from a Kawi (Old Javanese) word meaning “collection of islands” or “archipelago”, which Thijssen choose to honor his mother’s heritage.

1820: Thijssen travels to the Netherlands with a draft of the proposed Nusantara constitution and meets with government officials who are initially resistant to the idea.

Part I (1822-1903):
1822: After two years of often heated negotiations, a compromise agreement is reached. The East Indies will be allowed self-rule and the creation of an independent military in exchange for the new “dominion” remaining loyal to the crown and accepting Dutch parliamentary oversight of foreign policy as well as the power to amend the proposed constitution. In addition, the Netherlands would be granted “most favored nation” status in regards to trade.
The finalized Articles of Dominion are signed on March 17th, creating the Dominion of Nusantara (Dutch: Heerschappij van Nusantara; HvN). By November of 1823 the new country’s constitution has been adopted. The capital is established in Batavia on the principle island of Java – ironically in the former colonial governor’s headquarters – and parliament is called January 5, 1924. This First Parliament is the only one in the country’s history to be appointed and not elected and in turn appoints Emiel Thijssen as the new nation’s first prime minister.

1823: Thijssen’s controlling faction in Nusantara parliament is organized into the country’s first political party – the Yayasan (Foundation) Party.

1824: The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 is signed between the UK and the Netherlands. The treaty addressed issues arising from the earlier Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, reaffirming British control of the Malay Peninsula while requiring it to surrender all claims to Java and Sumatra in Nusantara. In exchange, the Netherlands agreed to surrender all Dutch territory in Malaysia and India to the British. The three parties affected by the treaty (UK, Holland, and Nusantara) are guaranteed free and unrestricted trade and would cooperate in the suppression of both the slave trade and piracy throughout the region.
Meanwhile, the first indigenously built Nusantara merchant ships enter service with a number of companies, most of which had already been established by Dutch interests after 1814. Surabaya becomes the earliest center for shipbuilding in Nusantara and many ships are constructed of native teak wood in addition to imported hardwoods.

1825: The first branch of the Nusantaran military – the Koninklijke Nusantara Marine (Royal Nusantara Navy) – is formally established on August 3rd. A year later, the first warships to enter service with the new navy are commissioned. KNS (Koninklijke Nusantara Schip - Royal Nusantara Ship) Java and KNS Sumatra are two ex-Dutch merchantmen converted to 36-gun frigates using surplus armaments purchased from the Netherlands.

1826: The Koninklijke Nusantara Korps Mariniers (Royal Nusantara Marine Corps) is established on May 15th and the first detachments deploy aboard the Java and Sumatra by the end of the month.

1827: The expansion of Nusantara’s government presence into the remaining unorganized territory of the islands of Sumatra and Java begins. By 1828, the government formally claims the western half of New Guinea but doesn’t establish a permanent presence there until 1898.

1830: The first large ironworks in Nusantara – the Ruysch Works – is established.

1831: A new class of heavy frigates; the 44-gun Halmahera class, enters service. Four; Halmahera, Nias, Sumbawa, and Taliabu, are built – the last commissioning in late October of 1833. After the introduction of the Timor class of steam frigates they were placed in limited commission until being retired in late 1872.

1833: The Koninklijke Nusantara Landmacht (Royal Nusantara Army) is established on September 20th, replacing the previous island militia units created shortly after the country’s founding.

1834: KNS Oyo, the first of a class of 18-gun sail corvettes, is commissioned. She is followed into service by Ayung, Wera, and Kumu, during 1834 and Toru, Solo, Laki, and Cisadane during 1835.

1836: The founding Yayasan Party loses control of Nusantara parliament in the general elections held this year in favor of the new Coalitie (Coalition) Party and Emiel Thijssen is replaced by Jan Ngurawan as prime minister. Ngurawan immediately proposes and Parliament passes a sweeping program of infrastructure improvements such as roads, bridges, schools, and hospitals.

1845: The Koninklijke Nusantara Maritieme Ontvangstendienst (Royal Nusantara Maritime Revenue Agency) is created June 14th. It will be disbanded following the Great War and replaced by the Royal Nusantara Coast Guard. The new service’s first revenue cutters are the eleven brig-sloops of the Ijver class which remain in commission from 1846-1877.

1853: The Nusantara Naval Academy is established in the coastal city of Bengkulu on Sumatra. The first class of graduates receives their commissions four years later. In March of 1855, the old frigate Sumatra is assigned to the Academy as its first training vessel.

1855: Year the Sumatra and Java frontiers are generally considered closed as Nusantara governmental control and representation in parliament is by now found throughout the islands. Improvements to local infrastructure are on-going, however.

1858: KNS Timor – the first of six steam frigates to join the Nusantara Navy – is commissioned. She is followed by Seram, Flores, Yamdena, Buru, and Madura. All are in service by the end of 1859. The new ships’ engines – purchased from Morgan Iron Works in the US – were built to merchant ship standards and although of high quality, were underpowered for naval use. As a result, these ships proved to be disappointing in service which leads to their early retirement after the introduction of the Ayung class steam corvettes the following decade. The poor performance of these ships persuades the government to begin investing in locally produced engines, boilers, and ancillary machinery for future military and civilian ships.

1860: Emiel Thijssen dies at the age of 71. Known as the “Father of Nusantara”, he is considered a national hero by his countrymen still today and was widely respected for his principled leadership abroad during his time as prime minister.

1861-1865: During the American Civil War, both the Netherlands and Nusantara were officially neutral but despite this, the KNM actively pursued Confederate ships operating in their waters, capturing several blockade runners and in November of 1863 narrowly missed capturing the CSS Alabama as she passed through the Strait of Sunda. The frigates Seram and Madura attempted to intercept the faster Confederate raider and did exchange fire, although neither side suffered any serious damage before the Alabama escaped. Nevertheless, after this incident, Confederate ships gave Nusantaran territorial waters a wide berth for the rest of the War.

1862: First large enclaves established throughout southern Borneo. Due to the large iron deposits found there, many of these enclaves are devoted to mining and the establishment of additional ironworks.

1864: Parliament passes the Naval Act of 1864. This first of its kind legislature is intended to address shortcomings in the current navy, particularly in light of the Alabama Incident the previous year. The Act calls for a class of steam corvettes and gunboats to be built to support and eventually replace the frigates.
In September, construction begins on KNS Surabaya in her namesake shipyard. She is the first of the gunboats called for by the 1864 Naval Act, and the first Nusantaran naval ship to use indigenously produced steam engines. She commissions in November of 1866. Completion of the rest of the class of eighteen proceeds quickly with the last two; KNS Palembang and KNS Malang commissioned in March of the following year.

1865: The first railway line in Nusantara opens on the island of Java. It is built to standard gauge allowing for the widest availability of locomotives and rolling stock, which must be purchased through foreign sources.

1866: The crews of the Confederate ships (mostly civilian blockade runners) seized during the American Civil War are repatriated back to the US.

1871: The last of twelve steam corvettes called for by the 1864 Naval Act commissions. The Ayung class is barque-rigged but mounts powerful locally produced engines and is among the fastest of their kind in the world; quickly replacing the Timor class frigates in frontline service.

1872: The Naval Act of 1872 calls for a class of “coast defense” monitors for the first time as well as a class of armored corvettes to be built. In addition, the Act calls for the establishment of additional naval bases and stations and an expansion of the government shipyards in Surabaya to permit the construction of larger ships. Although local armaments manufacturing is discussed, the time and costs involved are deemed prohibitive and the issue is tabled for the time being – meaning Nusantara must rely on foreign ordnance for the foreseeable future.

1874: The expansion of the Surabaya Navy Yard is completed. In September, construction begins on KNS Bratan, a twin-turret breastwork-type monitor. The first of four such ships, the Bratan is noteworthy as not only the first armored ship built for the Nusantaran Navy, but also the first such ship built locally (except for armaments, which are purchased from the UK). These ships represented a huge leap in both naval architecture and industrial capacity for the country and naturally took a long time to design and build – not commissioning until 1879-1880.

1877: The KNS Mesuji is commissioned. She is the first of the so-called “1872” composite (wood over iron framing) armored corvettes and is followed by eight sister-ships over the next eighteen months. They prove to be successful as well as long-lived, with the last active member, KNS Permali, finally decommissioned in August of 1908.

1878: The first railway on Sumatra opens with a line from Bandar Lampung to Palembang. This line is extended to the provincial capital of Pekanbaru during the late 1890’s and finally to the port city of Medan by 1918.

1879: The metric system is officially adopted by the Nusantaran government – including the military – although the Imperial (UK) system remains in casual or common use in many regions of Nusantara.

1881: KNS Woyla – a Mesuji class corvette – is destroyed by a magazine explosion while anchored at Surabaya – killing over two hundred of her crew. This is the worst peacetime accident in the Nusantara Navy’s history and leads to more stringent safety and training standards throughout the service.

1883: In an effort to modernize the Navy, the Naval Act of 1883 called for the acquisition of six modern steel-hulled cruisers (two armored, four protected) as well as a new class of corvettes/gunboats. As the country’s existing shipyards had little experience with large armored warships the Navy Procurement Board approached major British and Dutch shipyards for assistance. Britain submitted designs for both the proposed armored and protected cruisers while the Dutch declined, sighting prohibitive costs and lack of shipyard availability – but suggested the German firm of Germaniawerft instead. Meanwhile, the new gunboats would be built locally save for guns – which would have to be purchased abroad.
Nearly a year would pass while the Board debated with the final decision being in favor of the British for both new classes. However, literally hours before the contracts were signed, Naval Minister Martijn Adelmund stepped in and overruled the Board – giving the contracts to Germaniawerft. The British naturally cried foul at this, but the Netherlands government supported the decision. The subsequent discovery of payoffs from Germaniawerft to Prime Minister Salikin Irodikromo and several member of his cabinet including Minister Adelmund caused the first serious political scandal in the country’s history and brought down the government with a parliamentary vote of no confidence in February of 1884.

1884: Following the ouster of Irodikromo as prime minister and the loss of a majority by the Coalitie Party, a special election saw a new party; the Kamerdikan (Freedom) Party gains a slight majority and appointed Pieter Dasai as prime minister. Dasai was immediately confronted with seriously damaged diplomatic relations with Britain and Holland – which had referred Germaniawerft on good faith – over the so-called “Procurement Affair”, and so sent his Minister of State, Hendrik Staal, to Europe to try and smooth things over. As for the 1883 Naval Act, it becomes the only such act in Nusantara history to be rescinded. The Admiralty is incensed of course but can do little until a new act is passed by Parliament.

1885: A special naval procurement act is passed by Parliament to replace the provision in the cancelled Naval Act of 1883 calling for the construction of a new class of steel-hulled gunboats, which were always intended to be produced locally. Construction on the first; KNS Balikpapan, begins by January of 1887.

1887: The Naval Act of 1887 is passed by Parliament. Essentially a revisit of the cancelled 1883 Act, the new plan still called for the acquisition of two armored cruisers and four protected cruisers, however as relations with the Netherlands and Germany were still poor only the UK re-submitted designs and then only after lengthy negotiations with Minister Staal convinced the skeptical British that Nusantara was serious about the proposed agreement.

1888: The keels for the armored cruisers Aceh and Bali are laid down in the Pembroke and Chatham yards in the UK. These ships were essentially identical to the Royal Navy’s Orlando class armored cruisers.

1890: Shipyard availability and design revisions delay the start of the new protected cruisers as the Apollo class on which the Nusantara ships were now based were still under construction and only begin to be launched in the summer of the year, thereby clearing the slipways for the new construction.

1891: The last Balikpapan class gunboat; KNS Tarakan, is commissioned. These twelve vessels are the first steel-hulled ships in the KNM and the first to be built locally. They are larger, faster, and more heavily armed than their predecessors of the Surabaya class, and most remain in service until the 1920’s.

1893: Aceh and Bali commission into the Navy. Although they will be the only foreign-built armored cruisers to be built for the Nusantaran Navy, they quickly prove to be excellent additions vindicating the Procurement Board’s original decision. They remain in service until the mid 1920’s.

1897: The last of the four Kapuas class protected cruisers built in the UK is commissioned in June. Along with her sisters; Barito, Sepik, and Mahakam – all named for Nusantara rivers – the new ships were another welcome addition to the fleet, well-built and liked by their crews. The last of this class in active service, KMS Sepik, is retired in 1925.

1898: The major naval battles of the Spanish-American War – particularly the Battle of Manila Bay in the Philippines in May and the decisive Battle of Santiago in Cuba two months later were watched intently by Nusantara Naval Intelligence and their reports to the Admiralty spurred debate in the Navy Ministry as to the navy’s current limitations. It was realized for the first time that Nusantara’s territory itself could be threatened and the existing navy would be unable to cope with such a threat. With the Spanish Empire crushed the US was the new player in the Western Pacific while the British had control of the Malay Peninsula and indeed, control of the Indian Ocean. France, and to a lesser extent Germany, also had territorial possessions in the region, plus there was the emerging power of Japan to consider.
Although these “threats” were considered minimal as Nusantara had good relations with most of these countries and also had reached out to the Japanese Empire for the first time – establishing diplomatic relations the previous August, it was still thought prudent to expand the Navy to better protect the nation’s interests – particularly her trade – and so in late October, the Parliament passed the Naval Act of 1898 which called for a strengthening of the navy by acquiring additional cruisers as well as a small group of battleships to form the core of a standing battlefleet.

1899: KNS Karmozijn, the first of a group of six torpedo boats, is laid down at Surabaya – all are in service by the 1901. They are followed by a second group of nearly identical boats; the Azuur class (10) in 1902-03, and a third modified group; the Indigo class (10) of 1905-06, giving Nusantara a force of twenty-six in all. They are very successful in service but become obsolete very quickly and are replaced by true destroyers starting in 1910, but a few remain in service into the early 1920’s.

1900: The keel for KNS Marapi – the first Nusantaran battleship – is laid down in Portsmouth Dockyard in the UK. A modified version of the British London class, the lead ship is followed over the next three months by two sister-ships; Sundoro and Ijen, all named for Nusantaran volcanic mountains. Although the original plan was for five battleships, the costs were prohibitive and the class was cut to three vessels, all of which commissioned during 1903.

1901: The Cipinang, the first of a class of six protected cruisers, is laid down in the UK. Envisioned as “trade protection cruisers” the new ships are based on the British Pelorus design and are not intended for duty with the main battlefleet, but rather as patrol vessels or to protect Nusantara’s rapidly expanding merchant fleet. Only the class ship is built abroad, the rest of the class are built by local shipyards, with all six are in service by mid-1904. Cipinang thus becoming the last Nusantaran warship ordered through British shipyards (although British naval architects were heavily involved in the design of the later Mamberamo class light cruisers).

1902: A second naval shipyard opens in Tanjung Priok, Jakarta Province. The first ships built there are four of the Azuur class torpedo boats.

1903: KNS Ijen, the last of the Marapi class battleships to enter service, commissions in October. With these first true capital ships, Nusantara is recognized as an emerging naval power by several European nations as well as the US, but still lags behind the other emerging nation in the Western Pacific – Japan, who in the span of only two years, would cement her place as the dominate force in the region and a potentially serious rival to Nusantara.

Warships: 1822-1903

Java and Sumatra - sail frigates:
The first warships commissioned into the Nusantaran Navy, KNS Java (ex-Zwolle) and KNS Sumatra (ex-Sterrenlicht), were converted from Dutch merchantmen and were often listed together in contemporary records, but were not a “class” as such, as they had been originally built at different shipyards to different merchant designs. Rated at 36-guns, they were armed with surplus weapons purchased from the Dutch Navy, which was still downsizing following the Napoleonic Wars. Intended as stopgaps until purpose-built ships could take their place, neither was considered completely successful as during reconstruction they had to have their hulls shored up for naval use and once armed were much heavier as a result. Unsurprisingly, they were slower than other nations frigates and handled poorly even in light seas.
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Java was severely damaged in a grounding accident in 1842 and was removed from active service, becoming a receiving ship before being broken up in 1853. Sumatra was re-classed as a training vessel in 1855 and assigned to the Nusantara Navy Academy. Renamed Avontuur, the ship was extensively rebuilt beginning in 1864 and emerged from the yard re-rigged as a barque with a reduced main battery of 16 Dahlgren 20-pounder rifles. Re-commissioned in August of 1865, Avontuur served for another fifteen years before being retired in 1880.
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Converted: 1825-1826

In commission: 1826-1855

Displacement: 1,230 ts

Dimensions: Length (w/l) 47.3m, beam 12.2m, draft 6.1m

Propulsion: 3-masts, full-ship rigged; 3-masts, barque-rigged (Avontuur after 1864-65 rebuild)

Performance: 10-11 knots; 11-12 knots (Avontuur after 1864-65 rebuild)

Armor: none

Armament: 18-22 x 24-pdr MLS, 16-20 x 18-pdr MLS and/or 32 pdr carronades

Crew: 350

Coming up: more sailing warships and the first steam-powered vessels

Cheers!
Stealthjester


Last edited by StealthJester on November 15th, 2021, 11:06 pm, edited 6 times in total.

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Hood
Post subject: Re: Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:Posted: October 16th, 2021, 9:13 am
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Nice work on those sailing ships.
Good to see you back in action and equally good that you have recovered from your bout of Covid too.

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Hood's Worklist
English Electric Canberra FD
Interwar RN Capital Ships
Super-Darings
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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:Posted: October 16th, 2021, 4:12 pm
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Location: Spokane Valley, Washington, US
Thanks Hood - glad to be back!

Halmahera class heavy sail frigates:
The first purpose-built warships to see service with the Nusantaran Navy, the Halmahera class of 44-gun heavy frigates were the most powerful in the young navy’s history to date but were quickly rendered obsolete by the development of steam-powered warships. Designed in the Netherlands by the Fijenoord shipyard, whose ordnance works supplied the ship’s guns; the new frigates were also the first warships built by the government naval shipyards in Surabaya. Like contemporary Dutch frigates they were a little smaller for their rate than other nation’s ships, but were well liked by their crews as they were heavily armed, maneuverable and fast.
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Moved to second-line status when the Timor class steam frigates were commissioned, the Halmaheras’ would remain in active service until early 1866 when Nias and Sumbawa were decommissioned. The class ship would follow her sisters into retirement three years later, while Taliabu remained in service until the fall of 1872, when all four were sold off. Nias’ ship’s bell was retained, and later moved to the grounds of the Nusantara Naval Academy in Bengkulu.

In class: (4) Halmahera, Nias, Sumbawa, Taliabu

Built: 1829-1833

In commission: 1832-1872

Displacement: 2,190 ts

Dimensions: Length (w/l) 50.3m, beam 13.0m, draft 6.3m

Propulsion: 3-masts, full-ship rigged

Performance: 13 knots

Armor: none

Armament: 28 x 32-pdr MLS, 22 x 42-pdr carronades

Crew: 460

Cheers!
Stealthjester


Last edited by StealthJester on November 11th, 2021, 8:37 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:Posted: October 17th, 2021, 4:17 pm
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Oyo class sail corvettes:
Designed to support the frigates and undertake long-range patrols throughout the Nusantaran archipelago, the Oyo class were built mostly of teak due to shortages of imported oak and other hardwoods. They were rated as 18 gun corvettes and were the last sailing warships built for the Nusantaran Navy as well as the last to carry carronades when commissioned.
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KNS Ayung was lost in April of 1849 when she was driven aground on the south-western coast of the Malay Peninsula during a storm – the first such accident in the Nusantaran Navy’s history – becoming a total loss. Her survivors were later picked up by the revenue cutter Vrijheid. The remaining ships of this class remained in service until 1878, when six were decommissioned. The seventh, KNS Laki, was retained as a training ship until 1895 when she was also retired. She was not broken up, however, and was soon moored in the port of Teluk Bayur on Sumatra – site of the future Museum of Naval History. She remains in commission today and is still seaworthy, having been completely rebuilt in 1928 to her original configuration, and then refurbished in 1966 and again in 2008.

In class: (8) Oyo, Ayung, Wera, Kumu, Toru, Solo, Laki, Cisadane

Built: 1831-1835

In commission: 1834-1878

Displacement: 725 ts

Dimensions: Length (w/l) 39.0m, beam 11.0m, draft 5.1m

Propulsion: 3-masts, barque-rigged

Performance: 14 knots

Armor: none

Armament: 16 x 24-pdr MLS, 8 x 32-pdr carronades

Crew: 210

Next up: Timor class steam frigates

Cheers!
Stealthjester


Last edited by StealthJester on November 11th, 2021, 8:39 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:Posted: October 22nd, 2021, 3:54 am
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Timor class steam frigates:
By the early 1850’s, the Nusantaran Navy Ministry was increasingly aware the nation’s sailing warships were obsolete compared to the vessels fielded by the great European navies due to the advent and widespread adoption of steam propulsion and resolved to do something about it. Designs were drawn up over the next two years for a new class of frigate to replace the Halmahera’s. Finalized in 1854, the design was for a 40-44 gun single-shaft steam frigate with full-ship rigging. The problem was where to obtain the engines as Nusantara’s own steam engine manufacturing was still rudimentary and limited to large examples used in industry (such as factories and mills). The KNM Procurment Board – which had been established by the Navy Ministry in 1846 – looked into foreign manufacturers and eventually contracted with Morgan Iron Works in the United States for the new frigates’ engines, which were delivered by the beginning of 1856, about a year after the keels for the first two ships had been laid down. The weapons for the 42-gun rated ships were Dahlgren designs purchased from the US and consisted of two pivot mounts along the centerline with the secondary battery in conventional broadside mounts.
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Built by the Surabaya Navy Yard, the Timor class was the largest, heaviest, and most powerfully armed Nusantaran ships of their time, but their underpowered engines and relatively short range proved to be their downfall. Relegated to second-line duties following the introduction of the Ayung class corvettes in 1868, the entire class was retired in 1872 and sold off for breaking shortly thereafter.

In class: (6) Timor, Seram, Flores, Yamdena, Buru, Madura

Built: 1855-1859

In commission: 1858-1872

Displacement: 3,790 ts

Dimensions: Length (w/l) 80.0m, beam 15.5m, draft 6.5m

Propulsion: 1-shaft, 2-cyl trunk single expansion engine, 4 boilers; 925 ihp; 3-masts, full-ship rigged

Performance: 8-8.5 knots (engines only), 9-10 knots (engines and auxiliary sail)

Range: 960 nm at 8 knots

Armor: none

Armament: 2 x 11” Dahlgren MLS, 40 x 9” Dahlgren MLS

Crew: 670

Cheers!
Stealthjester


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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:Posted: October 24th, 2021, 9:52 pm
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Surabaya class steam gunboats:
Called for by the first Naval Act passed by Nusantara’s parliament, the Surabaya class of steam gunboats was the first to use indigenously built machinery – the rugged single-cylinder engines and horizontal fire-tube boilers were manufactured by Suratinoyo Karya Rekayasa (Suratinoyo Engineering Works) or SKR, which had been founded two years earlier. Armament for the new gunboats was again sourced in the US, but due to the on-going American Civil War, Dahlgren guns were in short supply and the decision was made to use Parrott muzzle-loading rifles instead.
Construction was shared between the Surabaya Navy Yard and private shipyards for the first time and would proceed quickly, with the entire class of eighteen in commission by the end of 1867. They proved to be popular with their crews and quickly gained a reputation for reliability. Organized into six-ship flotillas, the gunboats patrolled the Nusantaran archipelago for the next three decades during which time two were lost; Jayapura during a typhoon in 1870 and Medan in 1878, when she vanished while patrolling north of Borneo – to this day no trace of the ship or her crew has been found.
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Beginning with Denpasar, the surviving ships were rebuilt between 1881 and 1882 with refurbished engines and boilers – dispensing with their sail rigs – and their old Parrott guns were replaced by a uniform battery of five Armstrong BL 4”/27 Mk II breach-loading guns purchased from the UK. In 1890, nine of the class was transferred to the Revenue-Marine where they served as cutters until retired shortly after the turn of the century. The seven ships remaining in navy service were decommissioned starting in 1891 – all had gone to the breakers by 1897.
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In class: (18) Surabaya, Batavia, Ternate, Medan, Palangka Raya, Semarang, Bengkulu, Tanjung Priok, Pekanbaru, Bandar Lampung, Denpasar, Kupang, Jayapura, Cimahi, Madiun, Palembang, Tangerang, Malang

Built: 1864-1867

In commission: 1866-1896

Displacement: 705 ts

Dimensions: Length (w/l) 48.0m, beam 8.5m, draft 3.0m

Propulsion: 1-shaft, 1-cyl back-acting SKR steam engine, 2 SKR boilers; 510 ihp; 2-masts, schooner rigged

Performance: 11 knots

Range: 1,100 nm at 8 knots

Armor: none

Armament: 1 x 100-pdr Parrott MLR, 4 x 20-pdr Parrott MLR

Crew: 122

Next: more corvettes and the first Nusantaran armored ships

Cheers!
Stealthjester


Last edited by StealthJester on November 6th, 2021, 9:07 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:Posted: October 28th, 2021, 1:12 pm
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Ayung class steam corvettes:
The last of the “old standard” warship designs, the Ayung class nevertheless proved very successful in service, as well as serving as the basis for the following Mesuji class armored corvettes. Powerful, fast, and maneuverable, the Ayung’s were more than capable of replacing the earlier Timor class steam frigates in front-line service. Although the older ships carried more guns, the British 7-inch rifled muzzle-loaders the new corvettes carried had superior range and accuracy to either the older 11-inch or 9-inch Dahlgren guns, and fired a heavier shell than the latter weapon. Propulsion was provided by single-expansion engines for the last time – a two-cylinder trunk engine built by SKR produced 2,500 horsepower, giving the corvettes a maximum speed of 13 knots and a range over twice that of the Timor class. Also fitted for the last time was a “traditional” full-ship sail rig. Beginning with the follow-on Mesuji class sails were considered auxiliary only as steam engines continued to improve and by the 1880’s would disappear altogether.
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No fewer than twelve of these ships were built – creating a (temporary) shortage of seasoned teakwood for several years – with the last; KNS Kahayan, commissioned in the spring of 1871. Their service was lengthy, if not glorious, and they quickly became the workhorses of the fleet, remaining in front-line service through the 1880’s. In 1887, two; Kapuas and Mandiri were decommissioned due to advanced deterioration of their hulls discovered during a routine inspection. The rest of the class was also inspected and found to be less deteriorated and could be repaired; this took place from 1888 to 1889. Although these efforts were successful, the ten surviving ships were placed on limited commission beginning in 1893. All were decommissioned and scrapped three years later save for Rokan, which became a target ship and was sunk in a live fire exercise in 1911, and Citarum, which became a training vessel in 1898. Renamed KNS Reiziger, she continued in service until 1927.

In class: (12) Ayung, Citarum, Mahakam, Kapuas, Sanen, Brantas, Serayu, Manuk, Rokan, Opak, Mandiri, Kahayan

Built: 1866-1871

In commission: 1871-1898

Displacement: 1,830 ts

Dimensions: Length (w/l) 68.0m, beam 11.0m, draft 5.0m

Propulsion: 1-shaft, SKR 2-cyl horizontal trunk single expansion engine, 4 SKR boilers; 2,500 ihp; 3-masts, full-ship rigged

Performance: 13 knots

Range: 2,000 nm at 10 knots

Armor: none

Armament: 6 x RML 7-inch 6 ½ ton Mk II

Crew: 225

Next up: Ironclads

Cheers!
Stealthjester


Last edited by StealthJester on November 17th, 2021, 2:32 am, edited 2 times in total.

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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:Posted: November 3rd, 2021, 4:26 am
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Mesuji class armored corvettes:
Authorized under the 1872 Naval Act, the Mesuji class corvettes were the first armored ships to commission with the Nusantaran Navy, although not the first laid down – the Bratan class coastal monitors had started construction in early 1874 but took longer to build. The initial plan for the new corvettes had been simply to create an armored version of the Ayung class and that design was used as a basis but was quickly modified by lengthening the hull twelve meters, widening the beam over four meters, and extending the bulwark by a meter. Their main guns were grouped in a box battery configuration amidships becoming the only central battery ships commissioned into the KNM. In addition, the new class was the first with twin shaft propulsion as well as the first using compound steam engines. Finally, the Mesuji’s were of composite (wood over iron framing) construction – another first.
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After entering service by the end of 1878, the new corvettes were deployed throughout the Nusantara Archipelago where they performed well and served for the next twelve years – many times to “show the flag” by visiting foreign nations – for example, in 1883, Ogan became the first Nusantaran warship to visit Europe and the UK. In 1890, the eight surviving ships (Woyla was destroyed by a magazine explosion in 1881) were reclassified as protected cruisers and received hull numbers (C-1 to C-8) for the first time. Five years later, the ships were rebuilt with British BL 6-inch Mk II and QF 12-pounder 12 cwt guns as well as new upper-works, funnels, and simplified sail rigs.
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After re-commissioning, the cruisers continued in front-line service until after the turn of the century when they were replaced by the Cipinang class. Decommissioned in 1909, they remaining in ordinary for several years before being sold off and scrapped.

In class: (9) Mesuji, Bodri, Mas, Woyla, Permali, Ogan, Sikula, Kumai, Comai

Built: 1874-1878

In commission: 1877-1909

Displacement: 3,900 ts normal, 4,200 ts full load

Dimensions: Length (w/l) 80.0m, beam 15.2m, draft 5.1m

Propulsion: 2-shaft, 2 x SKR 3-cyl vertical compound engines, 6 x SKR boilers; 3,200 ihp; 3-masts, barque-rigged auxiliary sail

Performance: 14 knots

Range: 2,500 nm at 10 knots

Armor: All wrought iron. Belt 152mm backed by 279mm teak wood thinning to 127mm at ends, battery 152mm, bulkheads 114mm

Armament: 8 x RML 8-inch 9 ton Mk III, 4 x RBL 40-pdr Armstrong guns

Crew: 320

Next up: Monitors

Cheers!
Stealthjester


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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:Posted: November 6th, 2021, 9:16 pm
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Bratan class coastal monitors:
Authorized under the same Naval Act that produced the Mesuji class, the Bratan class monitors were state of the art when designed, but due to their long building times had been rendered obsolete by the time they commissioned. They were nevertheless the first Nusantaran turret warships and the first class built without an auxiliary sail rig. Of composite construction the new monitors carried four British RML 10-inch guns in two twin turrets fore and aft of the breastwork-style superstructure.
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After entering service, the Bratan class served as coastal defense ships – never venturing from Nusantaran territorial waters as their low freeboard prohibited operations far out at sea or in extreme weather. All four were modernized between 1892 and 1893 which included replacing their main guns with British BL 9.2-inch Mk VI breech-loaders and adding four 12-pounders for anti-torpedoboat protection.
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After re-commissioning by the end of 1893, the ships were re-classed as coastal battleships and given hull numbers B-1 to B-4. They continued in service into the 20th Century but their hull numbers were changed to a “BC” prefix after the first true battleships entered service. The class was equipped with wireless by 1908 but was otherwise showing its age, particularly in decreasing speed due to deteriorating engines and boilers. They were due to be retired by the end of 1915 but the outbreak of WWI proposed that and the Bratan’s were used for harbor defense during the conflict – freeing other ships for neutrality patrols.
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When the war ended the ships remained in commission only until April of 1919, before they were decommissioned and scrapped.

In class: (4) Bratan, Tidore, Kunyit, Semeru

Built: 1874-1880

In commission: 1879-1919

Displacement: 4,270 ts normal, 4,670 ts full load

Dimensions: Length (o/a) 81.0m, length (w/l) 78.7m, beam 17.5m, draft 5.5m

Propulsion: 2-shaft, 2 x SKR 3-cyl vertical compound engines, 6 x SKR boilers; 1,890 ihp

Performance: 12 knots

Range: 3,000 nm at 10 knots

Armor: All wrought iron. Belt 203mm backed by 279mm teak wood thinning to 152mm at ends, deck 40mm, superstructure/conning tower 229mm, turrets 254-229mm

Armament: 4 x RML 10-inch 18 ton Mk I

Crew: 390

Next up: More gunboats

Cheers!
Stealthjester


Last edited by StealthJester on November 15th, 2021, 1:56 am, edited 1 time in total.

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StealthJester
Post subject: Re: Dominion of Nusantara (the East Indies) 1822-1950:Posted: November 10th, 2021, 4:48 am
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Balikpapan class gunboats:
Initially a casualty of the fallout from the Procurement Affair, the proposed class of steel-hulled gunboats called for by the Naval Act of 1883 were reinstated by a supplemental procurement act passed by the Nusantaran Parliament in 1885. However, although the new ships were to be built locally, the strained relations with Britain, Germany and the Netherlands forced the Procurement Board to look elsewhere for armaments, as well as the compound steel armor needed (Nusantaran steel mills could produce most of the regular steel needed, but not the complex compound armor yet). In the end the United States stepped forward and offered to provide the guns and armor, as well as the plans for their new Yorktown class patrol gunboats on which the Nusantaran ships would be based.
Construction of the class ship began in 1887 with the next eleven laid down over the next several months at Surabaya as well as the two largest private shipyards in the country; Guret Scheepsbouwers (Guret Shipwrights) and Berlage en Prawiro. All twelve were in service by 1891. They were the first KNM ships powered by triple-expansion steam engines and the last to carry an auxiliary sail rig when built.
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The Balikpapan class changed very little over the years, even retaining their sail rigs throughout their service lives. During WWI, the class was the first Nusantaran warships placed on foreign station and was divided into four ship flotillas stationed in Manila Bay, Hong Kong, and Singapore at the behest of local governments as well as the US and the UK.
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After the war the ships remained on foreign station despite Japanese objections until 1922 when they were recalled home. They were decommissioned and scrapped the following year save for Binjai, which became a training ship alongside Reiziger, replacing her as the Bengkulu Academy’s training vessel after the latter retired in 1927. After decommissioning in 1939, Binjai was moved to the Museum of Naval History in Teluk Bayur where she can be seen today.

In class: (12) Balikpapan, Tegal, Salatiga, Binjai, Dumai, Palu, Ambon, Pariman, Tual, Langsa, Solok, Tarakan

Built: 1887-1891

In commission: 1890-1923

Displacement: 1,770 ts normal, 1,940 ts full load

Dimensions: Length (o/a) 74.5m, (w/l) 70.0m, beam 11.0m, draft 4.3m

Propulsion: 2-shaft, 2 x SKR 4-cyl horizontal triple expansion engines, 4 x SKR forced draught boilers; 4,130 ihp; 3-masts, schooner-rigged auxiliary sail

Performance: 17.5 knots

Range: 3,500 nm at 10 knots

Armor: Compound steel. Deck 20mm, conning tower 70mm

Armament: 6 x 6”/30 Mk 4, 4 x 6-pdr Hotchkiss QF Mk 1

Crew: 180

Next up: The first true cruisers

Cheers!
Stealthjester


Last edited by StealthJester on November 15th, 2021, 1:58 am, edited 1 time in total.

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