Republic of Texas, 1850-59
As early as 1837, the Republic made several attempts to negotiate annexation with the United States. Opposition within the republic from the nationalist faction, along with strong abolitionist opposition within the United States, prevented Texas's admission into the Union. The Cuevas-Smith Treaty, arbitrated by the British in 1844, formally resolved the ongoing border dispute with Mexico and ended further attempts at annexation.
After Texas’ sale of the New Mexico Territory to the United States in 1845, Mexico broke diplomatic relations, claiming the sale was a violation of Cuevas-Smith. Texas re-established its Army and Navy and prepared for war. The United States, at Texas’ invitation, stationed troops across the Rio Grande from Matamoros. This provocation sparked engagements between the two. After a series of United States and Texan victories, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the two-year war.
Post-war Texas grew rapidly as migrants poured into the cotton lands of the Republic. They also brought or purchased enslaved African Americans, whose numbers tripled from 1850 to 1859, from 58,000 to 182,566.
- a. Area
b. Country Comparison to the World: 40
- • Total Area: 268,581 mi2/696,241 km2
• Land: 261,866 mi2/678,835 km2
• Water: 6715 mi2/17,406 km2
c. Land Boundaries
d. Coastline: 367 mi/591 km
- • Total: 2845 mi/4552 km
• Countries: United States, Mexico
e. Climate: The size of Texas and location at the intersection of multiple climate zones gives it highly variable weather.
f. Terrain: Gulf Coastal Plains, Interior Lowlands, Great Plains, and Basin and Range Province.
g. Natural Resources: timber and arable land.
h. Natural Hazards: Thunderstorms, tornados, and hurricanes
III. People and Society
- a. Ethnic Groups: White Americans, Black Slaves, Mexicans
b. Language: English and Spanish
c. Population: 212,592 (1850)
- a. Type: Unitary Federal Republic
b. Capitol: Austin
c. Administrative Divisions: 66 counties, expanded to 153 counties by 1859
- a. Budget (1850-59 average)
b. Agriculture Products: cotton, corn, sugar cane,
- • Revenues: $1,754,322 TXD
• Expenditures: $1,654,718 TXD
c. Industries: iron
d. Exports: NA
e. Imports: NA
- a. Roads: NA
b. Railways: 96 mi/153.6 km among 5 incorporated companies
c. Waterways: 5 navigable rivers (Sabine, Trinity, Colorado, Brazos, Rio Grande)
d. Ports: Galveston, Indianola, Sabine Pass, Brazos Santiago
VII. Military and Security
- a. Military Branches:
b. Military Service Age and Obligation: compulsory militia enrollment for all white males between the ages of 18 and 45
- • Regular: Army (1400 personnel), Navy and Marines (700 personnel and 6 ships)
• Militia (19,133 available for service)
• Rangers (irregular number of 56-100-man volunteer companies mustered for 6 months’ service)
c. Military Expenditures: $714,068 TXD (average 1850-59); 43% of Budget Expenditures