Here is a timeline of major events from the Civil War up through the end of the War of the Americas:
Political party key: USA; D – Democrat, R – Republican, P – Progressive. CSA; C – Confederation, S – States First, RF – Reform, Foundation – F
Following the victory of Confederate forces in the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg, formal recognition of the Confederacy by the UK and France forces the Union to except a negotiated peace. After nearly three months of arduous talks, the southern states gain their independence. The resulting agreement is known as the Secession Treaty which will become effective January 1, 1864.
A provision of the Treaty calls for referendums to be placed before the state governments of the so-called border states of Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri to determine their future status. In addition, the US capital in Washington DC is declared to be “jointly occupied” by the US and CSA. Neither side is allowed to conduct governmental business in the city after 1870, which will be maintained in perpetuity as a national historic site and may not be attacked or besieged.
Former Union general George McClellan (D-NJ) wins the presidency in a close race against the incumbent Abraham Lincoln (R-IL) who many in the North blame for “losing” the Civil War. Lincoln returns to Illinois and, after a sabbatical to the West Coast, makes a successful run for the governorship.
The “Secession Referendums” are held. Missouri, Maryland, and Kentucky all vote to officially join the Confederacy, only Delaware remains in the Union.
Kansas granted statehood (US).
Two British-built sea-going ironclad turret ships; CSS North Carolina and CSS Mississippi are commissioned into the postwar Confederate Navy. They join the CSS Stonewall – an ironclad frigate built in France and commissioned the previous year.
The US capital completes its move to Philadelphia – although some ancillary functions remain in Washington until 1870 under the terms of the Secession Treaty.
Wilmington Navy Yard in Delaware is opened to replace the old Washington Navy Yard demilitarized under the Secession Treaty. The US Naval Academy moves to Newport, Rhode Island, as the original Academy in Annapolis, Maryland, is now ran by the Confederate Navy.
Alexander Stephens (no party-GA), Jefferson Davis’ vice president, is elected president in the first Confederate election post-Civil War.
Imperial Russia sells Alaska to the US. Nebraska granted statehood (US).
President McClellan is reelected.
In July, the German Confederation – lead by Prussia – invades France. The resulting war; known as the Franco-Prussian War, or in France as the War of 1870, goes very badly for the French under Emperor Napoleon III, and after a series of victories by Prussian forces under Otto von Bismarck; the French capital of Paris is placed under siege in September – the city falling in January of 1871.
After the defeat of Napoleon III in Battle of Sedan in September, the French establish the Third Republic; which will govern France until its near defeat in the Continental War.
In January, the German Empire is officially established under Kaiser Wilhelm I.
The Franco-Prussian War is ended by the Treaty of Frankfort which cedes Alsace and Lorraine to Prussia.
Hannibal Hamlin (R-ME) elected president of the US.
Judah P. Benjamin (C-LA) elected president of the CSA. Benjamin is a member of the Confederation Party which had been founded in 1869 as a counter to the ultraconservative States First Party which had been founded to contest the Confederate House of Representatives mid-term elections in 1869.
CSA President Benjamin authorizes the construction of naval shipyards in Charleston, South Carolina, and Mobile, Alabama, to support the growing Confederate Navy. Both yards open in 1876, but even with assistance from the UK, it will be many years before they equal the capacity of comparable US facilities.
Benjamin Butler (D-MA) elected US president. Butler – a progressive – is responsible for many civil rights reforms in the US and is an early champion for women’s suffrage.
Colorado granted statehood (US).
Benjamin H. Hill (S-GA) elected CSA president.
Elihu B. Washburn (R-IL) elected US president.
Former US president and two-term Illinois governor Abraham Lincoln dies at age 71.
CSA President Hill dies in office – his vice president, Matt Whitaker Ransom (S-NC), serves as interim president for the two years remaining in Hill’s term.
Washington granted statehood (US). Arizona granted statehood (CS).
James G. Blaine (R-ME) elected US president.
North and South Dakota granted statehood (US).
Interim president Ransom elected to a full term as CSA president.
Montana granted statehood (US).
President Blaine is reelected.
Idaho granted statehood (US). New Mexico granted statehood (CS).
Wyoming granted statehood (US).
John Tyler Morgan (S-AL) elected CSA president.
George Gray (D-DE) elected US president.
Oklahoma granted statehood (CS).
CSA President Morgan – a committed expansionist – pushes for Confederate expansion into the Caribbean. Subsequent CSA interference in Cuba leads to Spain declaring war in May.
John L. Mitchell (D-WI) elected US president.
Utah granted statehood (US).
John W. Daniel (C-VA) elected CSA president. Spanish-Confederate War ends in a decisive victory for the Confederacy, which gains Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the Philippines.
The US annexes Hawaii and Guam (and assumes control of the rest of the Marianas Islands) to provide a presence in the Pacific to counter the Confederate expansion.
With considerable financial assistance from US (and covertly, some CS) investors; France completes the Panama Canal.
The long-standing border disputes between the US and the UK over the boundaries of Alaska’s panhandle region are settled in The Hague, Netherlands, by arbitration. However, the loss of the territory including the city of Juneau to the province of British Columbia, Canada, does nothing to improve relations between the US and Britain, which continue to be strained.
Daniel H. Hastings (R-PA) elected US president.
Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, is established as a CSN naval base – the first located outside the CSA.
Benton McMillin (S-TN) elected CSA president.
The Wright Brothers of Dayton, Ohio, achieve the first controlled powered aircraft flight from a beach on Cape Cod.
In February, the Japanese Empire declares war on the Russian Empire three hours after the Imperial Navy attacks the Russian fleet at Port Arthur. Beginning of the Russo-Japanese War.
Former Secretary of the Navy and New York governor, Theodore Roosevelt (R-NY), elected US president.
President Roosevelt authorizes the establishment of a naval base in Hawaii to serve as a forward repair and coaling facility for the US Pacific Fleet (based on the West Coast). This move is only the latest in the continuing game of brinksmanship with the CSA.
Several months later, the Confederate Navy begins building a large naval base in Manila Bay in the Philippines. This has the side effect of creating tension between the CSA and Imperial Japan, who are in an expansionist mood following their victory in the recently concluded war with Russia.
In August, peace talks begin on formally ending the Russo-Japanese War. Instigated by US president Roosevelt, the resulting treaty of Portsmouth is signed in September. The treaty confirms Japanese dominance in the region and showed her to be an up and coming world power.
Cuba granted statehood (CS).
The CSN establishes a base in the coastal city of Guaymas in Sonora, Mexico, as part of a treaty signed between the Confederacy and Mexico a year earlier. Under a 100-year lease, the new Guaymas Base allows the CSN access to the Pacific via the Gulf of California.
Theodore Roosevelt reelected US president in a landslide victory over his democratic rival; William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska.
Charles A. Culberson (C-TX) elected CSA president.
President Roosevelt formally switches to the Progressive Party as he feels they are more in line with his political views. Roosevelt’s popularity ensures the Progressives swept the mid-term elections in both houses of the US Congress.
Theodore Roosevelt reelected to an unprecedented third term as US president.
“Some damn fool thing in the Balkans” causes the outbreak of the Continental War. Fought primarily between France and Germany (and to a lesser degree – Austria-Hungary, Italy, the Ottoman Empire and Russia), the conflict is considered by later historians the first “modern” war. Great Britain initially declares neutrality – as does both the US and CSA.
Furnifold M. Simmons (S-NC) is elected CSA president in a particularly contentious election.
In Europe, the Central Powers (led by Germany) smash through the French lines and are in a position to encircle and cut off Paris by late summer. Great Britain belatedly enters the war just in time to prevent France from collapsing, but is unable to force the Germans onto the defensive.
President Roosevelt calls for an American Volunteer Force (AVF) of up to 300,000 troops, which eventually sees 268,000 US troops eventually deployed to France to aid the Allies. He also dispatches a powerful USN squadron comprised of nearly the entire US battle-line to bolster the British blockade of Germany and to fight alongside the outnumbered French Navy.
Puerto Rico granted statehood (CS).
The Continental War grinds to a halt with the announcement of a cease-fire in July, which is then followed by a formal armistice by January of 1917. Both sides declare victory – although the Central Powers, particularly Germany – are considered in a more favorable position postwar.
Theodore Roosevelt’s close friend and vice president; Henry Cabot Lodge (P-MA), is elected US President after Roosevelt declares “Now that the crisis is past” he will not seek a fourth term.
Communist forces under Vladimir Lenin attempt to overthrow the Russian czar, Nicolas II. Fighting goes on until early 1919, at which time the forces loyal to the monarchy are victorious. Lenin escapes and with a number of his cronies, flees to Spain. The czar’s hold on power is weakened by the attempted coup, however, and he is forced to cede more and more authority to the State Duma.
Despite its near victory in the Continental War, social unrest and dissatisfaction with the monarchy within Germany erupts into conflict. Lasting into the following year – the rebellion nearly topples the Kaiser, who must surrender most of his authority to the new German Reich, which is established in 1920.
Former US president Theodore Roosevelt dies at his home in Sagamore Hill. Still immensely popular, his death is mourned throughout the country. He is later immortalized with the building of the Roosevelt Memorial located in Joliet, Illinois - site of the new US capital following the War of the Americas.
CSA President Simmons is impeached by the Confederate Congress on charges of graft and corruption – his vice president; John S. Williams (S-MS) serves as interim president.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire disintegrates. Although some of its territory is absorbed into other eastern European states such as Bulgaria and Romania – the majority becomes the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
President Lodge announces he will not seek reelection; Charles Evan Hughes (R-NY) wins in a close race against Democrat Al Smith (D-NY) and the Progressive candidate; Robert M. La Follette Sr. (P-WI).
In a hotly disputed debate, the Philippines are granted statehood (CS).
Claude A. Swanson (C-VA) wins the CSA presidency in a fervently contested election against interim president John Williams.
After a series of interim governments in the immediate postwar period, the French establish the ultra-nationalist Fourth Republic. The new government quickly becomes obsessed with protecting French sovereignty and as a result grows more and more totalitarian throughout the 1920’s and ‘30’s.
Guam Naval Base is established by the US in Apra Harbor in response to the Confederate Navy’s opening of bases in Puerto Rico, as well as increasing troop deployments to fortified positions along nearly the entire length of the border with the US throughout 1921. President Hughes calls this “a lit match hovering over a pool of gasoline” and begins mobilizing the Army and Air Corps.
A relatively minor incident along the increasingly fortified Ohio River in June leads to the outbreak of hostilities – beginning the War of the Americas (sometimes called the Second American Civil War). In late July, after a series of skirmishes, nearly a half million CSA troops – supported by both light tanks and aircraft – invade the US along three fronts; from Maryland into Delaware and Pennsylvania, from Kentucky across the Ohio River into Indiana and Ohio, and from Missouri into Illinois and Iowa. A series of early victories sees the CS Army advancing deep into US territory everywhere save west of the Mississippi River, where the Confederates are repulsed with heavy losses.
The US launches a belated, but formidable, counter-offensive in April, reversing many of the initial gains of the Confederates the previous year. Long-range bombing campaigns are begun by both sides – accelerating the development of both fighters and anti-aircraft guns. In August, a mass raid on the Goodyear Tire & Rubber facility in Akron, Ohio by CSAC bombers marks the beginning of dedicated strategic bombing by both sides.
By late fall, the front has stabilized just south of the Ohio River as the US offensive stalls against heavy Confederate defenses before winter brings military operations largely to a close.
At sea, however, the conflict becomes more frequent and brutal. An encounter off Puerto Rico sees a CSN battle squadron accompanied by a battlecruiser scouting group fight to an effective draw against a numerically superior US fleet. After the battle – later dubbed the First Battle of the Caribbean – an appeal to Britain by the Swanson Administration for aid and possible intervention is turned down – souring the previously close relationship between the UK and the Confederacy.
In Germany, a failed coup against the Reich government by a radical group known as the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) results in the near annihilation of the organization by units of the Riechswehr (German Army) – including its leader, a failed artist and Continental War veteran named Adolph Hitler, who is killed leading a revolt against the government of Munich.
Running on a platform aimed at ending the War; John W. Davis (D-WV) is elected US president. In May, the Second Battle of the Caribbean occurs – the largest naval encounter of the war – which ends with the US wining a significant victory over the Confederate Navy.
After the battle, the CSN is on the defensive save for limited raids and unrestricted submarine warfare which is sanctioned for the first time by President Swanson – taking advantage of the Confederacy’s superior numbers of submarines. For the next four months, CS subs inflict heavy losses on US shipping until convoys are instituted and sufficient dedicated anti-submarines forces are available to combat the threat. Airships, both rigid and non-rigid types, become commonplace for both sub-hunting and convoy escort and are quite effective.
In October, a massive air raid on the CS capital of Richmond, Virginia, followed by a long-range artillery barrage, forces the Confederate government to relocate to Atlanta - the CSA President, his cabinet, and their families, escaping shortly before the city falls to advancing US forces in their last major offensive of the war.
With their capital and much of Virginia, Maryland, and Kentucky in US hands, the CSA consolidates its defenses in the southernmost states of the Confederacy – again stalling the US advance.
After four years of brutal fighting, the armies of both sides are largely deadlocked, while many border cities lie in ruins. The USN, however, has the remains of the CSN largely bottled up in harbor preventing any offensive sorties as well as preventing most overseas convoys from reaching the Confederacy.
At this juncture, Great Britain and Japan step in sponsor peace talks which take place in Canada. The resulting Treaty of Montreal essentially restores the prewar status quo between the Americas with the major exception that the Ohio River region is to be demilitarized. Japan’s offer to mediate is quickly rebuffed by both Americas amid fears they will use the negotiations to seize territory in the Pacific which infuriates the Japanese – who withdraw from the 1902 Anglo-Japanese Alliance in protest.