The Mediterranean/Atlantic theater of war - In summary
The German Fleet
As the only restrictions to Germany's navy was its size, they were able to build vessels to match their counterparts. From 1936 to 1940, the Scharnhorst class battleships were constructed (with her sisterships being Gneisenau, Bismarck and Tirpitz). She bore a resemblance to the real life H39 class, in that she mounted 406mm guns. The Kriegsmarine focused more on surface warships, not building as much U-boats as they usually would, and they also did not construct the Deutchland class cruisers. The budget and resources instead went towards the larger and very powerful Scharnhorsts, as well as five Admiral Hipper class cruisers, the last two - Seydlitz and Lutzow - were completed as light cruisers with 150mm guns. The final addition to the Kriegsmarine, as the two Graf Zeppelin class fleet carriers (her sistership being Peter Strasser).
The Road to War - 1940
The surprise attack on Port Isla by the Japanese in June 1940 was quickly followed by a declaration of war by Germany and the other Axis powers on Antara. By July, Antara was sending her merchant convoys to assist the British, which very soon began to disappear thanks to the vast convoy raiding being committed by the Kriegsmarine, both by U-boats and surface warships. The Japanese surprise attack made getting Antara's Pacific fleet in order a logistical nightmare, this led to delays in deployments by months, as well as other poor decisions. Many of the Atlantic vessels were rerouted to the Pacific as at the time the Kriegsmarine wasn't deemed a huge threat, mainly due to the hope they had for the Royal Navy to deal with them. In truth, the Royal Navy was also extremely divided in both theaters, sending four battleships, a carrier, a few cruisers and several destroyers to the Pacific (resulting in their loss). Success was very limited for the Allies in the first few months of WW2, as naval casualties were shockingly high for both the Antarans and the British. The huge presence of the Kriegsmarine in the Atlantic meant the British were unable to sink any French vessels before they were all completely seized by the Germans and Italians by August, and Malta fell rather quickly in December. Ferrying convoys to North Africa was also a very difficult feat that the Royal Navy was somehow still able to pull off for two years.
8 September 1940
Antaran battlecruisers Nucadia and Vescadia, while sailing through fog in the North Atlantic, encounter German battleship Bismarck. Both forces engage at what is basically point blank range, 4km. Vescadia intended to launch her torpedoes, which drew most of Bismarck's attention. This ends in disaster for the Antarans. Nucadia is pummeled by 16", 6" and 4" shells from the battleship and sinks within minutes of the engagement. Vescadia withdraws while Nucadia begins to capsize, but eventually gets targeted by Bismarck and loses her #2 turret due to a lucky hit. Bismarck suffered only minor hits from Nucadia's 5" battery, while Vescadia scored only a stern pass-through hit with her 12" guns. Vescadia's #2 turret was not replaced until late 1942, but still continued to sortie with makeshift repairs until then.
Both the UK and Antara came together for Operation Drumroll, with the goal being to hunt down and sink Germany's extensive raiding operations in the Atlantic. This included the sinking of the four Scharnhorst class battleships the five Admiral Hipper class cruisers, many destroyers and around 250 submarines. Antara started by ordering the mass production of frigates and corvettes to deal with the submarine threat (including the Pacific, with the IJN) as well as the recall of some of her battleships from the Pacific fleet, the three Queen Erica class battleships. Fleet Admiral Nicholas Doyle, as the commander in charge of the Atlantic theater, oversaw the campaign
24th of May 1941
Britain sends her glorious HMS Hood as well as one of her newest vessels, HMS Duke of York, to hunt down any German battleships operating in the Atlantic. They find what they are looking for off the northern coast of Spain, battleship Bismarck, thanks to an Antaran patrol force. The British warships moved into intercept her and the Battle of Galician coast ensued. After trading salvos for nearly 40 minutes, Bismarck received a shell penetration from Hood which detonated her forward magazine and sank her.
After the loss of Bismarck, Admiral Raeder decides that the rest of his battleships need to operate more with friendly warships to prevent further losses. While not necessarily operating in the same task force, his vessels would be assigned to specific regions, but still close enough to assist one another - they were effectively wolfpacks.
28 June 1941
While on patrol off Nova Scotia, battlecruiser ARS Vescadia is spotted by German destroyer Z-22, who then notified the nearby ships: Z-17 and cruiser Blucher. In the late morning of that day, both Z-22 and Z-17 joined each other on either side of Vescadia and opened fire at a range of 16km. Vescadia suffered massive damage to her superstructure - fires were started and crew casualties mounted. There was a full five minute delay before the battlecruiser fired back with her 5" secondaries. Vescadia targeted Z-22 with her 12" battery, as she began to close for a torpedo attack. The engagement drew on for twenty minutes, which saw Z-22 playing it safe after suffering hits from Vescadia, but only until Blucher had arrived, who too was trailed by destroyer ARS Siren, who was maintaining radio silence. Much like Vescadia, Blucher was forced to divide her attention between two ships once Siren opened up on her. Both German destroyers diverted their attention and turned their guns on the Antaran destroyer, leaving Vescadia to duel Blucher, the latter of which was ultimately sunk. Z-17 withdrew and Z-22 was destroyed by Siren, concluding the Battle off Nova Scotia.
July 1941 saw the assignment of fleet carriers Cheridon and East Moren to the Atlantic, which proved vital for finding and sinking of many of Germany's capital ships, firmly gaining control of the Atlantic. Britain's naval might fell rapidly, having to divide her attention between two oceans (and one sea), which meant Antara had to go into overdrive.
July of 1941
On 11 July, battleship Queen Erica took three torpedoes from a U-boat, while on patrol in the North Atlantic, and was forced into dry dock until early 1943, but what followed became a rather well-known chain of events. The floatplane launched by Queen Erica spotted the German submarine surfacing after it started to withdraw, and tailed it. The U-boat fired at the plane moments after her location was reported. The plane's engine was destroyed by the AA and her pilot attempted to ram the submarine after the tail-gunner was killed. The ram failed as one of her depth charges came loose during the descent and detonated after making contact with the hull of the German vessel, sinking it and destroyed the plane. 40 minutes later a squadron of dive-bombers, launched by fleet carrier ARS Cheridon, were supposed to have arrived at the location of the submarine, but instead got lost. That squadron turned to head back, but sighted a flotilla of warships 30km away from their original target. German cruisers Prinz Eugen and Admiral Hipper, escorted by four destroyers, were moving in to finish off Queen Erica. The squadron gave the order to attack the flotilla after making a contact report. Admiral Hipper was targeted by most of the dive bombers and suffered two 1000 pound bomb hits, one destroyed her #3 gun and the second destroyed her floatplane and set the ship on fire. Prinz Eugen was also dived, but did not take any hits. Queen Erica's escort ships - the destroyers ARS Sadara, ARS Benton and the light cruiser ARS Azura City - spotted the smoke from Admiral Hipper 15 minutes after she was bombed and set forth to engage them.
It was early afternoon when both forces made visual contact with one another and shelling ensued. The firing continued for over three hours. During the battle, the Germans were aided by friendly carrier based aircraft, who after failing to land hits on the Allied ships, proceed to strafe them on occasion. ARS Benton, after being repeatedly strafed and focused by the Germans, decided to withdraw. Azura City depleted her ammunition for her forward battery and also made an attempt to withdraw. Sadara fired her entire set of torpedoes at the still burning Admiral Hipper, missed, but struck and sank Z-8. Prinz Eugen soon after destroyed Sadara's staring and set her command deck ablaze, causing mass panic and confusion among her crew, and the ship itself sailed away from the involuntarily. Sadara accidentally came across the aircraft carrier Peter Strasser during her withdrawl. Sadara came under fire from the carrier's only escort, Z-6, the former of which was sunk during the ensuing gunfight. ARS Cheridon, now aware of the enemy carrier's presence, wanted to organise a flight to attack her, but due to the low visibility (night was coming) they held back. However the commander of the force worried the Germans would attempt to flee under the cover of night, and ordered newly arrived reinforcements to pursue them. The wind and rain picked up, which made it incredibly difficult to chase, but this applied to both fleets trying to sail. At 4:10 AM, 12 July, the heavy cruiser ARS Scarlette sighted Prinz Eugen and Peter Strasser relatively close to one another during the storm.
The thunder and lightning made it possible for both forces to eye one another and at 4:15, Scarlette opened fire on Prinz Eugen. At 4:35, heavy cruiser ARS Eisenburg joined the battle, as well as the heavily damaged Admiral Hipper. Scarlette scored massive hits on both Eugen and Hipper, the latter of which suffered a magazine explosion at 4:50. At 4:55, Scarlette began to take fire from a third combatant which was unspotted until her muzzle flashes were observed, the battleship Gneisenau had flanked both cruisers. Eisenburg turned her attention towards the battleship, but held her fire soon after anyways, and retreated. Scarlette did the same, but only because her 3/4s of her battery had been knocked out 15 minutes into Gneisenau's joining. The second phase of the battle concluded with Hipper's sinking, however it was not yet over, as the third phase of the battle continued into the late morning of the same day. Gneisenau, Peter Strasser, Prinz Eugen and several destroyers were spotted at 11:15, several kilometers away from St Nazaire by British aircraft. The Antaran carriers Cheridon and East Moren sent 120 aircraft towards the force, which were met with resistance from land based fighters, but broke through and torpedoed Gneisenau. Nine torpedoes, which sank her only 15km from dry dock. Strasser was hit with two bombs but survived. The Antarans lost two fighters during a dogfight, and one torpedo bomber by AA. This was collectivily, albeit erroneously (as the engagement spanned several areas), titled the Battle off St Nazaire.
4 December 1941
The Royal Navy and the Antaran Navy, trying to put pressure on the Germans after gaining supremacy of the Atlantic Ocean, formed an operation to knock St Nazaire's docks and prevent the Kriegsmarine from using them. In September, Peter Strasser and Prinz Eugen had escaped back to Germany via the English channel. Scharnhorst was nowhere to be found based on reconnaissance, and Tirpitz was in the North Sea, meaning no major warships would be present for the attack. The British proposed an extremely risky commando attack, but the Antarans insisted on a conventional naval bombardment, with a greater amount of risk - but a much higher chance of success. Confident they had the U-boat threat more or less under control, the Antarans formed a sizable task force in November, complete with four old battleships, two newer battleships, two fleet carriers, three escort carriers and sixteen destroyers and frigates. Despite insistence of a great air threat, the Antarans were confident in the ability of her carriers to cover them.
On 4 December, Task Force 13 arrived 40km off the coast of France, where they were already met with speed bumps. At 11:30 they were greeted by U-167, who attempted to make a torpedo attack an escort carrier, but was attacked by at least three frigates and one destroyer, and sunk. At 12:10, destroyer V-13 was spotted attempting to fleet North out of the harbor and was incessantly strafed by carrier borne fighters before being caught up by another destroyer, ARS Benton, where the former was lost in the ensuing gun duel. At 12:35, two more German destroyers approached from the South-West, behind the Antaran taskforce. By now, the battleships were already opening up on shore positions and the carrier borne fighters were attempting to maintain air superiority after coming into contact with the Luftwaffe, and thus were unable to respond to any other calls for support. The task of dealing with V-1 and V-3 fell to the rear guard of the Allied taskforce. Corwood, Sadara, Coleman and anti-aircraft cruiser St Dominique. This particular fight lasted longer than the bombardment. After several torpedo runs, weaving in and out of smoke screens and constant calls for air support, resulted in V-3 sinking Corwood, V-1 sinking Sadara and Coleman sinking both German destroyers. The bombardment was successful as the St Nazaire dry docks were utterly devastated, but only at the huge cost of an entire battleship and 1500 lives, to a single Ju-87 bomb that detonated her forward magazine. Only 12 sailors survived St Naomi's sinking. The Second Battle of St Nazaire turned out to be far more costly than the Allies had ever imagined and left some wondering if a commando raid could've gotten the job done better.
1942 in the Mediterrainian
With the sea lanes to the Mediterrainian mostly secure, Antara assisted the British in escorting convoys for the North African campaign. Other than simply providing escort and leasing equipment, some of Antara's army volunteer divisions fought in the desert along with Commonwealth forces. It is often said that with the involvement of Antara in early 1942, the North African campaign could've ended half a year later if it was easy to maintain the supply chain. Both the Allies and the Axis struggled to keep their own supply routes steady, especially when four navies were duking it out with one another, and since Malta had fallen thanks to the lack of British intervention, constant harassment by aircraft was a problem. As Germany had captured all of France without the establishment of the Vichy Regime, and with the Royal Navy's failure to sink the French fleet in 1940 (thanks the activity of the Kriegsmarine), the Axis had access to a huge amount of warships in the Mediterranean, including the recently finished Jean Bart.
April 1942 saw the one week long Operation Torch succeed without much of a hitch, where the Allies were able to occupy Morocco and Algeria, as well as French West Africa. The only attempt at resistance was the landings at Algiers. The now captured French cruisers Algerie and Colbert, as well as destroyers Valmy and Mogador, attempted to disrupt the landing craft, but were however driven off by carrier planes from HMS Ark Royal, with a torpedo bomber sinking Valmy. The following night, 8 April, Ark Royal was attacked by the same group of vessels and sunk by a torpedo strike. HMS Foresight and Enterprise were able to destroy Mogador while Colbert escaped with light damage.
20 August 1942 - Invasion and battle off Malta
As the Axis occupation of Malta made supplying Allied troops in North Africa even more difficult, and the fact that Malta needed to be captured before an eventual invasion of Italy, Antara created Operation Shortsword. This operation, the Allied invasion of Malta, was preceded by an expected response from the Regia Marina. The vanguard of the Allied force, task force 18, included a single battleship ARS Queen Erica (commanded by Rear Admiral Samual Adams), three heavy cruisers: ARS Iris, ARS Jessamy and ARS Isla; five light cruisers: Jericho, Chiyo, St Dominique, Davenport and Lamberg, supported by destroyers: ARS Kenzington, ARS Alain, ARS Jayde, ARS Heidi, ARS Kuvara, ARS Angelo, ARS Jinora, ARS Carrywood, and ARS Lorraine. The task force was also supported by aircraft from ARS East Moren and ARS Shimada and other escort carriers. TF 18 approached from the South-West of Malta, whilst the rivaling fleet approaching from the opposite South-East.
The joint Italian-French force consisted of battleships: Vittorio Veneto, Roma, Dunkerque and Strasbourg; cruisers Trieste, Zara, Pola, Algerie, Dupleix, La Galissonniere, Duca d'Aosta, Luigi Cadorna and Giuseppe Garibaldi. The Axis force also consisted of 14 destroyers, making it by far the largest Axis force assembled to counter the Allies. They knew Malta was critical to gaining control of the Mediterranean and were willing to fight hard for it.
The first shots broke out between Antaran carrier fighter escorts and Italian/German fighters at around 11:30, shortly afterwards ground positions were hammered by dive bombers in preparation for the landings which were set to happen one hour later. This landing force consisted of 10,000 Antaran soldiers, with motorized vehicles and armor. At around 12:00, the Allies had almost completely gained air supremacy. At 12:20, destroyer Heidi made radar contact with a small force of ships, 40km East-South East off Malta. Most of the Antaran vanguard went steamed to meet the Axis naval response, excluding battleship Queen Erica and cruisers Chiyo, St Dominique, Davenport. At 12:30, in conjunction with the landings, the Antarans and combined Axis naval units made visual contact with one another. The Antarans spotted destroyers and cruisers, and combined with their radar report, they determined they were outgunned. They did not radar for additional support, but instead continued at full speed. The shelling began at 12:50, at a distance of 22km between the heavy cruisers Isla, Pola and Zara, joined shortly by other cruisers, and eventually the destroyers. Both forces were drawn to the far south of Malta. Chiyo, St Dominique, Davenport came to assist at 14:10, by then the battle was still raging heavily. At 16:15, Queen Erica made radar contact with a second group of enemy vessels while covering the landings with gunfire. She launched a catapult fighter (the carrier fighters were busy with ground support) to gain a better understanding of what she had picked up. The discovery of Roma, Vittorio Veneto, Strasbourg and La Galissonniere caused a panic among Erica's bridge crew.
Rear Admiral Adams, realizing his carriers and landing ships are completely exposed, radioed for support, but the rest of the task force was engaged and could not answer or would not help. Adams made the decision to fight the closing battleships, in hope he would get support along the way - which he never did.At 16:30, Queen Erica opened fire on Roma, a minute later she and Vittorio Veneto returned fire. Erica's opponents were attempting a pincer movement, in which the two Italian battleships pushed from the North-East, while the two French warships pushed from the South-East. This went unnoticed by Rear Admiral Adamns, who ordered his vessel to focus fire only on Roma, which was 26km away. Erica's 4th salvo landed a hit on Roma at 24km,which would mark the longest hit in history, however the actual damage was minor. When the Antarans and Italians had closed to 19km, the French Strasbourg opened fire as well. Adams realized he was cornered, but refused to divert attention away from Roma. At 16:40, Roma's erratic firing finally had some success, when one of her shells penetrated Erica's armor belt and caused shrapnelling in one of her boiler rooms. At 16:45, La Galissonniere opened fire around the same time Vittorio Veneto landed two shells on Erica, one of which ricocheted off her aft turret and the second which passed through her forward superstructure. By 16:55, Erica disabled Roma's #2 gun, smashed through her front barbette and temperarily caused a loading issue, as well as caused shrapnelling in her superstructure. Roma turned about hoping to put some distance between Erica and divert her attention to Veneto, which she managed to do. Erica turned her guns on Veneto, which scored two more hits above her belt. Strasbourg started making hits at 17:00, disabling Erica's forward main battery fire director, forcing the vessel to use its aft director instead. Around the same time Erica, disabled Veneto's #1 and #3 gun turrets, penetrated her main belt four times and caused her speed to drop to 10 knots. At 17:05, Erica's aircraft handling facilities were destroyed by La Galissonniere, around this time Erica turned her attention back to Roma once Veneto stopped firing and continued to burn. At 17:15, Roma scored three massive hits through Erica's belt once again, which killed most of her engine crew and caused the ship to drift slowly. Erica disabled Roma's fire control, most of her secondaries, her aft gun turret and caused her to slow down as well. Roma's still functioning front turret continued to fire, occassionly smashing through her rival's superstructure, and eventually knocking out her #2 gun. Strasbourg, at 17:25, penetrated Erica's conning tower and killed Rear Admiral Adamns. Minutes later, Roma's forward magazine exploded from a penetration. Erica slowly turned about to bring her guns on the flanking French, by 17:30, La Galissonniere had closed into Erica's 5" battery range, which quickly opened up on her. Most of her 5" guns were already disabled however, but this did not stop those still functioning to set the cruiser ablaze. At 17:35, Erica's 410mm battery shot right through the front of La Galissonniere, disabled her engines and silenced her main battery. Strasbourg's, Roma's and Veneto's hits added up as Erica's listing prevented her two remaining main battery guns from getting on target, but not before Strasbourg was also briefly quieted due to Erica's skilled crew.
At 17:40, all four of the remaining vessels (Roma had sunk), had stopped firing. Erica had stopped, was listening and was burning, and so was Vittorio Veneto. La Galissonniere was attempting to close in for a torpedo attack, as all of her guns were experiencing loading issues. Strasbourg were attempting to control a fire started near her magazines. At 17:50, as La Galissonniere was getting ready to launch torpedoes she began to take fire from ARS Iris who had responded to Queen Erica's call. The French cruiser fired her torpedoes anyways, but missed, not realizing Erica wasn't actually moving which caused the torpedoes to pass more than a hundred meters off her bow. She was shortly sunk by Iris, who afterward fired on Strasbourg. Another cruiser joined, ARS Chiyo, and at 18:10 she launched her set of four torpedoes, landing one on the battleship's bow. Strasbourg was scuttled by her crew after waving the white flag. Vittorio Veneto had eventually succumbed to her wounds and sank. The battle concluded, resulting in the loss of 70% of Erica's crew, as well as 90% of the other Axis force. Queen Erica was in the process of being scuttled (ARS Jayde was alongside her with torpedoes at the ready), when it was decided that she would be towed once they were able to find a way to control her flooding. Erica was in drydock four a full year and two months under accelerated repairs, but from then on she was stationed in the Pacific. With the sea secure, the invasion of Malta was highly successful and was finished within a week.
September 1943 to February 1944
The months following the occupation of Malta by Allied forces was followed by only minor, but numerous smaller engagements, which saw the destruction of the French and Italian navies. Mostly, as most of the Italian/French navy retired by mid 1944 due to fuel shortages and the fact that Italy would surrender following another invasion - this time of the Italian mainland. However in the North Sea, things were far more dire for the Allies. As Antara had minimal interest in that region of the Atlantic, they provided little to no support to the British until late 1944. Because of this, convoy disruption hit the Soviets a fair amount. The eventual attachment of larger capital ships, battleships, did nothing to stop the two German battleships from continuing their rampage. Resolution and Warspite were both sunk at the hands of Tirpitz and Scharnhorst in November 1943. Queen Elizabeth was heavily damaged in February 1944 by Tirpitz.
The surrender of Italy in January 1944 had the British hoping the Antarans would be free to dedicate their Atlantic fleet to the North Sea, however most of that fleet was redirected to the Pacific instead. Antara continued to operate under the assumption that the Royal Navy could handle the issue of the Kriegsmarine, and sent her vessels to the theater that required desperate reinforcements, since early 1943 already.
28 April 1944
As an Allied invasion of Northern France was in the planning, the North Sea needed to be completely clear to avoid any risk of disruptions from the Kriegsmarine during amphibious landings, and it was for this reason that Antara rededicated some of her squadrons to the Atlantic to assist the British. On 28 April, the British discovered the Germans were dispatching Scharnhorst along with Graf Zeppelin to attack an Arctic convoy bound for Kola Inlet. Convoy JW58 was escorted by no more than four destroyers and two light cruisers, as such the Antaran navy offered to provide support in the form of a carrier taskforce, consisting of fleet carriers Umbara and Scarborough. The convoy was actually used as bait, mainly because the taskforce could not actually catch up to them. Instead aircraft would actively hunt for the German raiders, and so it happened. At 5:40AM, bombers launched from ARS Scarborough after she had received an intelligence report from British decoders, who had tracked Scharnhorst's location some 630km away from JW58. Umbara launched her aircraft 15 minutes after Scarborough, with the entire air wing consisting of 84 bomber aircraft escorted by 42 fighters. 12 bombers were seperated due to poor weather conditions and returned to their carrier, 4 aircraft also failed to launch. It took 45 minutes for the aircraft to make visual contact with Scharnhorst and another vessel, those aircraft however were greeted by carrier based fighters from Graf Zeppelin. The following dogfight failed to prevent then Antaran bombers from getting through. 4 bombers were shot down by AA, 2 fighters were shot down by other fighters. Scharnhorst was hit the most, being the primary target, whilst Graf Zeppelin was only given attention once the airspace around the battleship was too crowded. Scharnhorst was hit with 11 bombs and 12 torpedoes, whereas Graf was struck by 6 bombs and 5 torpedoes. Both vessels were destroyed in under 10 minutes from between the first attack and the last. Another 45 minutes later Graf Zeppelin's 16 dive bombers found Umbara and Scarborough with the assistance of U-341. By 7:20, Umbara was hit with 4 torpedoes from the U-boat, the latter of which went into silent running once she was pursued by escorts. At 7:25 Graf's aircrafted dive bombed both carriers, with Scarborough taking one bomb and Umbara being hit with two. One of Umbara's bombs failed to explode, whilst the other ignited torpedoes and bombs meant for her returning aircraft, assuring the complete destruction of the vessel. As Graf Zeppelin had already sank, the credit was given to U-341. Scarborough became the only Antaran aircraft carrier sunk in the Atlantic, and the only carrier successfully torpedoed by a U-boat in the theater.
Umbara's sinking turned what would have been a decisive victory, into a bittersweet one. The decisions made by the navy were called into question, such as the over confidence in their fleet carriers instead of using cheaper and more abundant escort carriers. The carriers were also escorted by 12 ships, 4 frigates and 8 corvettes, none of which were able to sink U-341, resulting in the loss of over 2000 sailors. Most of Umbara's aircraft were forced to find a British airfield to land, although nearly 20 aircraft ditched in the water due to lack of fuel and 11 landed on Scarborough instead.
The end of the war in Europe - 1944 to 1946
By mid August, Tirpitz had been hunted down and sunk by HMS Nelson and HMS King George V. Later that month, carrier Peter Strasser was bombed by Lancasters whole moored in Norway. With the Kriegsmarine essentially defeated, this opened up the option of an invasion of France, specifically Normandy. Planning for a massive joint airborne and amphibious began in March 1945 code named Operation Overlord, which was eventually carried out, but it was barely a success and came at a cost of high casualties. However it was necessary, as the USSR would not be able to defeat Germany without the aid of the other Allies. By the time the Allies had invaded France, the Soviet Union had only recently regained their lost territory, the war on two fronts assured Germany's defeat in June 1946, ending with the Antaran occupation of Berlin.