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Post subject: Kingdom of BavariaPosted: August 25th, 2020, 12:46 am
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KINGDOM OF BAVARIA
KÖNIGREICH BAYERN

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INTRODUCTION

LOCATION
  • Central Europe, west of Czechia, north of Austria
  • south-eastern corner of the Confederacy of German States

NATIONAL SYMBOLS
FLAG
  • fusily bendwise argent and azure
    heraldic tinctures and corresponding colours: argent (silver), or (gold), gules (red), sable (black), azure (blue), vert (green)
HERALDIC ACHIEVEMENT
  • Quarterly, Sable a lion rampant Or crowned armed and langued gules (Electorate of the Rhine); per fess dancetty Gules and Argent (Duchy of Franconia); Argent a panther rampant Azure armed and langued Gules (County Palatine of Ratisbon, Lordship of Upper Bavaria); Or three lions passant guardant Sable crowned armed and langued gules (Dukedom of Swabia); Overall an inescutcheon fusily bendwise Argent and Azure (House of Wittelsbach)
ANTHEM
  • 'Bayernhymne' (Hymn of Bavaria)
MOTTO
  • Cum fide virtutis (Latin: steadfast in loyalty)
FOUNDATION
  • October 1 2011 (also national holiday)
HISTORICAL AFFILIATIONS
  • Duchy of Bavaria (Holy Roman Empire) 962–1806
  • Kingdom of Bavaria, 1806–1918
  • Kingdom of Bavaria (German Empire), 1871–1918
  • People's State of Bavaria (Realm of Germany), 1919–1945
    statehood lost under Nazi rule 1935–1945
  • State of Bavaria (American Zone of Occupation), 1945–1949
  • Free State of Bavaria (Federal Republic of Germany) 1949–2011
  • Kingdom of Bavaria (Confederacy of German States) 2011–

CAPITAL
  • Munich

OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S)
  • German

GEOGRAPHY

AREA
  • 71,259.77 km² (27,513.55 mi²)

CLIMATE
  • temperate, continental in some regions
  • cold, wet winters and warm summers

TERRAIN
  • mostly rolling hills and low mountains; Alps in south
  • ranging from 110 m (360 ft) to 2,963 m (9,721 ft)

NATURAL RESOURCES
  • iron, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, silver, tungsten, construction materials, timber, arable land, hydroelectric potential

LAND USE
  • agricultural: 46%
  • woodland: 36%
  • developed or non-claimable: 18%

HAZARDS
  • avalanches, flooding, forest fires, landslides, windstorms
  • unexploded ordnance and landmines surfacing in cities bombed during World War II and along the former German-German Border

GENERAL INFORMATION

TIME ZONE
  • CET, no daylight saving time

MEASUREMENTS
SYSTEM OF MEASUREMENT
  • metric system
DATE FORMAT
  • dd.mm.yyyy (AD); week begins on Monday

COMMUNICATIONS
CALLING CODE
  • +422
EMERGENCY PHONE NUMBERS
  • 111 (police); 112 (fire brigade/rescue services)
INTERNET TOP LEVEL DOMAIN
  • .bv
    purchased from Norway in 2017; not recognised by older browser versions

VEHICULAR TRAFFIC
  • drives on the right

LARGEST CITIES
  • Munich: 1,503,222 inhabitants
  • Nuremberg: 519,344 inhabitants
  • Augsburg: 300,010 inhabitants
  • Ratisbon: 157,006 inhabitants
  • Ingolstadt: 140,198 inhabitants (2021 census)

Demographics and society

POPULATION
  • 13,231,995 (75ᵗʰ of 233) (2021 census)

RESIDENTIAL POPULATION BY NATIONALITY/IMMIGRATION BACKGROUND
  • 85.1% Bavarian/German
  • 3.4% Turkish
  • 2.7% Polish
  • 1.8% Italian
  • 1.1% Romanian
  • 1.0% Austrian
  • 0.9% Hungarian
  • 0.7% Swiss
  • 0.3% American
  • 3.0% other (2021 census)

RELIGIONS
  • 67.8% Christian (Catholic, Protestant, Orthodox, Old Catholic)
  • 28.5% Atheist or no confession declared
  • 3.6% Muslim
  • 0.1% Jewish (2021 census)

AGE STRUCTURE
  • 00–14 years of age: 15.3%
  • 15–64 years of age: 64.1%
  • 65 years of age and above: 20.6% (2021 census)

SOCIAL INDICATORS
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (HDI) RATING
  • 0.940 (5ᵗʰ of 189) (2020)
LIFE EXPECTANCY AT BIRTH
  • females: 83.85 years (16ᵗʰ of 186)
  • males: 79.17 years (25ᵗʰ of 186) (2021 est.)
MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE
  • 5.19/100,000 live births (4ᵗʰ of 189) (2021 est.)
INFANT MORTALITY RATE
  • 3.2/1,000 live births (15ᵗʰ of 189) (2021 est.)
LITERACY RATE
  • 99.5% (15ᵗʰ of 190) (2021 est.)
UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, 5-YEAR MOVING AVERAGE
  • 3.1%
INCARCERATION RATE
  • 99/100,000 capita (73ʳᵈ of 223) (2021)
INTENTIONAL HOMICIDE RATE
  • 0.65/100,000 capita (198ᵗʰ of 230) (2020)

SOCIAL ISSUES
  • ageing society
  • state of division between proponents and opponents of the 2010 referendum
  • watchdogs criticise an increasingly illiberal social climate

Politics and administration

FORM OF GOVERNMENT
  • constitutional monarchy

HISTORY
  • 2007–2010: German Constitutional Crisis; Angela Merkel’s government collapses due to disputes over the "Greek bailout" and the German Länderfinanzausgleich (Interstate Equalisation Payments Pact)
  • May 25 2009: Merkel is re-elected in snap elections on a promise of constitutional reform
  • August 8 2010 Referendum: Bavaria is the only German state to narrowly vote in favour of secession (51.1% vs. 48.9%); a low turnout (60.3%) and allegations of Russian interference allow federalist and secessionist movements alike to persist
  • Bavaria’s secession necessitates a reorganisation of the remaining German states to reflect new economic realities; the (second) Federal Republic of Germany – constituted of partly-sovereign Alemannien (Alemannia), Brandenburg, Hessen-Thüringen (Hesse-Thuringia), Niederrhenanien (Lower Rhenania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Transelbingen (Transalbinia), Oberrhenanien (Upper Rhenania) and Obersachsen (Upper Saxony) –, is proclaimed and votes to form a union with Bavaria
  • June 4 2011: monarchists prevail in the Bavarian referendum over the future form of government; the crown is offered to Max-Emanuel, Duke in Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach (previous Bavarian rulers 1180–1918)
  • October 1 2011: Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle; the Bund Deutscher Staaten (Confederacy of German States) comprising the Kingdom of Bavaria and the Federal Republic of Germany is formed, as are its institutions (Deutscher Rat or Council of Germany, uniting both governments under a directly elected President; Vollversammlung der Deutschen Staaten or General Assembly of the German States; Schiedsgericht des Bundes or Confederate High Tribunal of Arbitration)
  • both nations possess full legal sovereignty and international personality but "coordinate" their policies "where required by the Treaty" (primarily defence, economy, social policy, environment protection, judicial cooperation) and elsewhere "should they so desire"
  • January 1 2015: Bavaria joins NATO and becomes a EU pre-accession nation

DEMOCRACY INDEX RATING
  • 7.99 (23ʳᵈ of 167) (2020)

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS
LANDSCHAFTEN
  • lit. 'lands', i.e. provinces; second-highest level of administration: Niederfranken (Lower Franconia), Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia), Oberfranken (Upper Franconia), Oberpfalz (the Upper Palatinate), Schwaben diesseits des Allgäu (Swabia Cisallgovia), Niederbayern (Lower Bavaria), Oberbayern (Upper Bavaria)
KREISE
  • lit. 'circles', i.e. districts; third-highest level of administration: 98 in total
GEBIETSKÖRPERSCHAFTEN
  • municipalities; fourth-highest level of administration: divided into Städte (cities), Märkte (towns), Gemeinden (parishes), Dörfer (villages) and Weiler (hamlets) – depending on their population size, tax yield and ability to self-administrate

CONSTITUTION
HISTORY
  • Bairische Constitution (Constitution of Bavaria) drafted in 1808, first to create (male) universal suffrage within the lands of the former Holy Roman Empire; amended in 1818, it remained in force largely unchanged till 1918; 1919’s first republican constitution was effectively suspended by Nazi rulers in 1933
  • democratic Verfassung des Freistaats Bayern (Constitution of the Free State of Bavaria) introduced in 1946 and complemented by the nationwide German Grundgesetz (Basic Law) of 1949
  • current: Verfassung des Königreichs Bayern (VKB, Constitution of the Kingdom of Bavaria) and – pertaining to the affairs of the latter – Satzung des Bundes Deutscher Staaten (Charter of the Confederacy of German States), both of which came into force on October 1 2011; the new constitution is largely based on a proposal drafted by exiled Bavarians prior to the Bavarian Restoration by Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1945
LIBERTIES
  • guarantees human dignity and right to life; personal freedom; equality before the law; free speech; freedom of faith; freedom of assembly; freedom of movement; privacy of correspondence and communications; inviolability of the home; occupational freedom; property and inheritance; right of petition; right to bear arms
    no restitution of aristocracy; only families who had borne hereditary titles prior to the Bavarian Troubles of 1919 continue to bear them as courtesy titles

SUFFRAGE
  • 18 years of age, universal
    voting is compulsory

LEGISLATURE
LOWER HOUSE
  • Abgeordnetenhaus (Chamber of Deputies) with 196 members, 98 of whom directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 98 members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote
  • main legislative body; members are elected for 4-year terms
UPPER HOUSE
  • Rätehaus (Chamber of Councillors) with 98 ordinary members directly elected by proportional representation vote from party lists, and a not-predetermined number of facultative members without voting rights appointed by the monarch on recommendation of the Stände (Estates)
    estates: collective name of the nation’s public-law institutions (e.g. universities, guilds, officially recognised religious organisations etc.), the participation rights of which are calculated anew before each term based on the number of citizens represented by them
  • Councillors serve mainly advisory functions (exception: bills on taxation, constitutional law); ordinary/facultative members are elected/appointed for 4-year terms

EXECUTIVE
HEAD OF STATE
  • H.M. SOPHIE, Königin der Bayern und Fürstin von Liechtenstein (Queen of the Bavarians and Princess Consort of Liechtenstein) (since April 2 2021 following the abdication of her father MAX-EMANUEL)
  • mostly representative functions with some reserve powers (ability to dissolve hung parliament, right to demand new readings of a bill he/she deems unconstitutional)
  • the monarch's constitutional role as a moderator between the executive and legislative branches gives him/her great unofficial influence
HEAD OF GOVERNMENT
  • H.E. Xaver TRECHSEL VON TEUFSTETTEN, Staatsminister und Vorsitzender des Ministerrates (Minister of State and Chairman of the Council of Ministers) (in office since November 24 2016)
CABINET
  • Council of Ministers; members are appointed and dismissed by the monarch on the Chairman's/Chairwoman's recommendation
ELECTIONS/APPOINTMENTS
  • the monarchy is hereditary, the heir apparent being the monarch's eldest child
  • parties must gain 3.33% percent of the national vote to gain caucus recognition
  • following general elections, the monarch must task the chairman/chairwoman of the largest caucus/coalition in the Chamber of Deputies with the forming of a government; if that deputy is unable to form a government in 45 days, the monarch may give aforesaid task to any other Deputy he/she deems able
  • political parties must commit to a coalition option prior to the elections; no coalition may consist of more than three individual caucuses

JUDICIARY
LEGAL SYSTEM
  • civil law system
INTERNATIONAL LAW PARTICIPATION
  • accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
HIGHEST COURTS
  • Reichsgerichtshof (High Court of Justice): 168 judges organised into 24 7-judge panels (14 ordinary panels, 10 special panels); members are selected by a commission consisting of the Minister of Justice, the deans of law of Bavaria’s universities and an equal number of Deputies and Councillors; the candidates are appointed by the monarch and serve till mandatory retirement at age 66
  • Bayerischer Verfassungsgerichtshof (Constitutional Court of Bavaria); 12 judges and 12 alternates, 12 of whom are selected and appointed as above while 12 are co-opted by the sitting judges by way of simple majority vote
CRIMINAL AGE
  • 10 years of age
ADMISSIBLE SANCTIONS
  • corrective actions: courts may impose alternative sentences tailored to the nature of a (lesser) offence if such punishment may be sufficient to defend the legal order and correct the delinquent's behaviour (e.g. community service)
  • monetary fine: imposed in daily rates (no less than 7, no more than 365) set at no less than Ƒ1 and no more than Ƒ1,000,000; default imprisonment can be imposed instead of an unrecoverable fine, with 1 daily rate corresponding to 1 day of imprisonment
  • fixed-term imprisonment: between 7 days and 30 years; may be suspended on probation for first offenders
  • imprisonment for life: in statute for deliberate causation of death and protracted suffering; life in prison may also be imposed on a multiple offender if all minimum terms of imprisonment would amount to more than 30 years
LIMITATION PERIOD
  • corresponds to the admissible minimum term of imprisonment for the offence in question, but at least 3 years; offences punishable by imprisonment for life are not subject to a statute of limitations

POLITICAL ISSUES
  • Bavaria's recent alignment with Eastern European "illiberal democracies" draws the criticism of Germany and other Western neighbours

Economy

OVERVIEW
  • forming a common market with Germany, Bavaria is a part of the European Economic Area (EEA)
  • transitional agreements grant tax breaks and other benefits to German companies
  • major global economy; home of car manufacturers like Audi, BMW, MAN; consumer goods producers like Adidas, Puma, BSH; engineering firms like Siemens, MTU, Kuka; financial companies like Allianz, Unicredit, Munich Re; tech firms like Infineon, Celonis, Fraunhofer
  • sizable tourism sector due to world-famous destinations such as Neuschwanstein Castle; winter sports; picturesque nature
  • Bavaria has the highest number of breweries and the oldest operating brewery in the world ('Weihenstephan', established 752 AD)

CURRENCY
  • Bayerischer Gulden (Bavarian Guilder, linked to the Euro: Ƒ1 = €1 ≅ $1.17)

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
  • $769 billion (19ᵗʰ of 186) (2022 est.)

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH RATE
  • +1.15% (2022 forecast)
  • +0.45% (2021 est.)
  • +0.35% (2020)
  • +2.55% (2019)
  • +2.25% (2018)

GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT PER CAPITA
  • $58,116 (13ᵗʰ of 186) (2022 est.)

NATIONAL FINANCES
REVENUES
  • $301.80 billion (2021)
EXPENDITURES
  • $308.58 billion (2021)
PUBLIC DEBT
  • 49.70% of GDP (2021)

ECONOMIC PORTFOLIO
  • Primary sector: 0.9%
  • Secondary sector: 32.0%
  • Tertiary sector: 67.1% (2020)

LABOUR FORCE
  • 7,869,965 (2020)

AGRICULTURAL GOODS
  • wheat, barley, hops, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; dairy products; cattle, pigs, poultry

INDUSTRIES
  • among the most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, textiles

EXPORTS
  • $296.50 billion (2022 forecast)
  • $290.87 billion (2021 est.)
  • $298.24 billion (2020 est.)
  • $300.90 billion (2019 est.)
  • $300.30 billion (2018 est.)

EXPORT PARTNERS
  • China (People's Republic of) 8.95%, Netherlands 8.20%, United States 7.43%, France 6.61%, Switzerland 5.55%, Austria 5.19%, Poland 4.37%, United Kingdom 4.29%, Oman 3.41%, Singapore 2.00% (2021)
    excluding trade within the Confederacy

EXPORTED GOODS
  • cars, machinery, electronics, chemicals, aircraft, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, textiles (2021)

IMPORTS
  • $274.05 billion (2022 forecast)
  • $274.99 billion (2021 est.)
  • $282.70 billion (2020 est.)
  • $271.43 billion (2019 est.)
  • $269.07 billion (2018 est.)

IMPORT PARTNERS
  • Austria 10.68%, Netherlands 10.40%, China (People's Republic of) 8.05%, France 7.23%, Czechia 6.95%, Poland 5.12%, Italy 5.09%, United States 4.78%, Switzerland 4.40%, Belgium 4.23% (2021)
    excluding trade within the Confederacy

IMPORTED GOODS
  • chemicals, fuels, metals, rare earths, electronics, agricultural goods, pharmaceuticals (2021)

RESERVES OF GOLD AND FOREIGN CURRENCY
  • $70.16 billion (2021 est.)

ELECTRICITY
ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION
  • 90.20 TWh (2020 est.)
ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM RENEWABLE ENERGIES
  • 45.19 TWh (50.1%) (2020 est.)
ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION
  • 76.56 TWh (2020 est.)

TRANSPORTATION
ROADWAYS
  • 133,515 km (82,962 mi) paved of 133,515 km (82,962 mi) total; including 5,544 km (3,444 mi) of motorways (2020)
    no speed limit on motorways (autobahn)
WATERWAYS
  • 536 km (333 mi) navigable
  • Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea
RAILWAYS
  • 4,507 km (2,800 mi) electrified of 6,010 km (3,734 mi) total (2020)
AIRPORTS
  • international airports: 2 (MUC, NUE)
  • transregional airports: 2 (FMM, OBF)
  • airfields with paved runways: 28 (2020)
AIR TRANSPORT
  • registered air carriers: 9 with 139 aircraft
  • civil aircraft registration prefix: BV
    BV-AAAA to BV-ZZZZ reserved for commercial air-travel, BV-0001 to BV-9999 for state-owned (non-combatant) aircraft; BV-XZ01 to BV-XZ99 for test aircraft; BV-ZA01 to BV-ZA99 for non-profit organisations; BV-C01AA to BV-C99ZZ for general aviation

ECONOMIC ISSUES
  • excess supply of employment due to demographic change
  • heavy reliance on imported gas and oil
  • economic impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, particularly on self-employed citizens and tourism workers
  • public debt has increased 91% since 2011 due to costs associated with the secession

Military

OVERVIEW
  • amongst the first public institutions established, the Army of the Kingdom of Bavaria (AKB) is responsible for "the defence of Bavaria and her allies in compliance with international law", the "protection of world peace and free trade" and "providing humanitarian aid" (VKB Sec. 87)
  • the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle requires the Kingdom of Bavaria to commit 1 mechanised division and other forces to the defence of the Confederacy
  • Bavaria's defence industry complex – comprising e.g. tank builder KMW, aircraft manufacturer Airbus, sensor technology specialist Hensoldt et.al. – is capable of manufacturing the full spectrum of air and land military weapons systems
  • aside from the States of the Confederacy, non-Bavarian suppliers include France, United States, Italy, Czechia, Poland, Austria, Switzerland, Israel

EXPENDITURES
  • 1.49% of GDP (2022 forecast)
  • 2.72% of GDP (2021)
  • 2.20% of GDP (2020)
  • 3.92% of GDP (2019)
  • 2.56% of GDP (2018)

COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF
  • H.M. SOPHIE as reigning monarch
  • Frank-Walter STEINMEIER, as President of the Council of Germany (if the Confederacy is under attack)

COMPONENTS
  • Landstreitkräfte der Armee des Königreichs Bayern (Ground Forces of the Army of the Kingdom of Bavaria)
  • Luftstreitkräfte der Armee des Königreichs Bayern (Air Forces of the Army of the Kingdom of Bavaria)
  • Königlich Bayerische Landwehr (Royal Bavarian Home Guard)
    Home Guardsmen serve in Heimatschutzbataillone (Homeland Protection Battalions) and may be called upon to provide regional security or disaster relief
  • Königlich Bayerisches Gendarmeriekorps (Royal Bavarian Constabulary)
    answering to the civil Ministry of State during peace time, the Constabulary assumes tasks of both a military police and civilian law enforcement agency, supporting civil authorities with specialised capabilities (e.g. riot suppression) and policing rural municipalities too small to maintain a police department of their own
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MILITARY SERVICE AGE
  • 18-48 years of age (enlisted personnel, non-commissioned officers, junior officers)
  • 18-66 years of age (staff officers, flag officers)

SERVICE OBLIGATION
  • both sexes must register for compulsory service
  • a right to conscientious objection is recognised; alternative service opportunities exist within the Zivildienst (community service organisation) and volunteer fire departments;
  • conscripts serve 11 months initially and 3 quadrennial 10-day refresher periods; volunteers can join the Home Guard and are recalled for at least 2 weeks of service each year
  • selective conscription: unless a "state of tension" (VKB Sec. 90a) is declared, those registered are only partly drafted (with preference towards the most-able-bodied and motivated)

MANPOWER
STRENGTH
  • active: 47,015 troops (2020)
    includes 23,425 conscripts, 18,090 career soldiers, 5,500 constables
  • reserve: 60,200 troops (2020 est.)
    to be raised to 90,000; includes 29,333 guardsmen
  • civilians: 12,528 (2020)
REGENERATION CAPABILITY
  • available for military service: 5,431,065, both sexes
  • fit for military service: 4,308,100, both sexes
  • annually reaching military age: 147,820, both sexes (2018 est.)

DEPLOYMENTS
  • Central African Republic (MINUSCA): 1,150 troops
  • Mali (MINUSMA): 184 troops

MILITARY ISSUES
  • considerable financial demands of build-up efforts to assume responsibilities outlined by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
  • opponents of the 2010 referendum allege that the draft is used to instil subservience to the budging state into the nation's youth

APPENDIX A: HOLDINGS OF THE ARMY OF THE KINGDOM OF BAVARIA

PERSONAL WEAPONS

RANGING FROM HIS TRUSTY SERVICE RIFLE TO SHOULDER-FIRED ANTI-TANK MISSILES, THE SOLDIER'S TRADE REQUIRES A VERSATILE SET OF TOOLS.

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The BREN 2 is a modular 5.56×45 mm select-fire self-loading rifle by Czech gun manufacturer ČZ. It uses a short-stroke gas piston and rotating breech block, comes with various barrel lengths and can be modified to accept the 7.62×39 mm cartridge. The Army of the Kingdom of Bavaria issues a full-size variant of this accurate and reliable weapon as the force's service rifle under the designation of Maschinenkarabiner 16. Additionally, each rifle section is equipped with a ČZ 805 G1 dedicated 40×46 mm under-barrel grenade launcher.

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ČZ's BREN 2 BR is the battle rifle-cousin of the baseline assault rifle. With its more potent calibre and longer heavy-duty barrel, it complements the weapon mix of the infantry by offering an increased effective range, greater accuracy and stopping power. The Bavarian military has introduced this Czech rifle under the designation of Präzisionsselbstlader 17 (precision self-loading rifle). It is issued to the best shot in each rifle section and appears elsewhere in the hands of specialists like sentries.

UTILITY VEHICLES (WHEELED)

A BAVARIAN PROVERB SAYS: "OHNE MAMPF KEIN KAMPF" – YOU CANNOT FIGHT ON AN EMPTY BELLY. KEEPING BAVARIA'S ARMED FORCES OPERATIONAL REQUIRES VAST AMOUNTS OF FUEL, AMMUNITION AND FOOD. A FLEET OF DURABLE AND POWERFUL UTILITY VEHICLES IS CALLED UPON TO PROVIDE ESSENTIAL LOGISTICAL SERVICES.

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The G-Wagon is a four-wheel drive off-road vehicle with three fully locking differentials produced by legendary German car maker Mercedes-Benz. Half luxury automobile half no-nonsense workorse, it is perhaps the only car to have chauffeured starlets about Hollywood and served in numerous wars. The reliability and versatility of this boxy-looking vehicle are highlighted both by its largely unchanged fourty-year production run and its unbroken popularity with operators not known for parting with their money easily: the armed forces of over a dozen nations. Fielding 1.100 vehicles in a number of variants, the Bavarian military uses the G-Wagon under its original military moniker: Wolf.

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The T 810 is a six-wheel drive medium logistics truck designed by Tatra for the Czech Army. Deviating from the usual design philosophy of that storied Moravian truck builder, it features rigid portal axles and a ladder frame rather than independently swinging half-axles. This highly mobile vehicle is capable of carrying 16 troops or cargoes and superstructures weighing up to 5100 kg. As a special feature, its cab floor offers protection from anti-personnel mines and hand grenades thus increasing crew survivability. In Bavarian service, the T 810 is nicknamed the Lama. The purchase of nearly 600 "Lamas" has been seen as a diplomatic overture towards the Visegrád Group states.

PROTECTED VEHICLES (WHEELED)

"PROTECTED" VEHICLES WERE DEVELOPED IN SOUTH AFRICA DURING THE BORDER WAR. SOME THIRTY YEARS LATER, THEY HAVE BECOME A STANDARD PIECE OF EQUIPMENT FOR MILITARIES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. DESIGNED TO PROTECT THEIR OCCUPANTS FROM THREATS TYPICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH CONFLICTS OF LOW INTENSITY, THEY MUST BE ABLE TO WITHSTAND SMALL ARMS FIRE, SHRAPNEL, LAND MINES AND ROADSIDE BOMBS.

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The Light Armoured Patrol Vehicle 5.4 is a variant of the Mercedes-Benz G-Wagon produced by Armoured Car Systems of Bavaria. Originally designed for the German Army to be used in the War in Afghanistan, and now serving with a number of European militaries and police forces, this combat-proven vehicle offers protection from small arms fire and light anti-tank mines. Usually it is armed with a pintle-mounted machine gun. Due to its smaller dimensions and less intimidating profile, the LAPV 5.4 is ideal for patrolling, liaison or mentoring roles. The AKB fields some 100 units in total. Like its more unassuming cousin, it is dubbed the Wolf.

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Ratel (honey badger) is the designation given by the Bavarian military to the Light Multirole Vehicle 2 from Iveco of Italy. The LMV 2 is a combat-proven multi-purpose tactical vehicle, highly agile and capable of carrying a complement of 5 troops or payloads in excess of 2.5 tonnes. The LMV 2 comes with an add-on armour kit with which the vehicle can be adapted to meet the predicted threat level. Fully armoured, it provides protection up to STANAG 4569 Level III, making it a remarkably stalwart platform for its size. The AKB uses the Ratel in a wide variety of configurations: infantry mobility, logistics, reconnaissance, electronic warfare, battlefield control and liaison duties.

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Produced by the now-Bavarian tank builder Krauss-Maffei Wegmann, the Fennek (fennec) is a protected reconnaissance vehicle originally build for the armies of the Netherlands and Germany. Its low profile, whisper-quiet engine and powerful sensors mounted on a retractable mast allow the vehicle's crew to monitor enemy movements even while it remains hidden from sight. In Afghanistan and Mali, the Fennek proved both its indispensability to field commanders and its ability to withstand threats even in excess of its design limits. The Bavarian military owns 114 of these formidable vehicles, including 62 newly builds next to stocks inherited from Germany. They equip target acquisition batteries, field reconnaissance squadrons and tactical air control parties.

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Krauss-Maffei Wegmann's Dingo is the quintessential mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicle, ending its tenure in the War in Afghanistan with the lowest number of casualties relative to the number of hostile attacks. It is capable of withstanding sustained small arms fire with armour-piercing rounds, anti-tank mines and roadside bombs. Once developed for the German Army's peace-keeping efforts on the mine-infested Balkans, this derivative of the legendary Unimog has since been purchased by eight militaries and spawned an entire family of specialised variants. A whole pack of Dingoes of various configurations can be found throughout the Army of the Kingdom of Bavaria, including tactical vehicles, command platforms, as a detector of nuclear, biological or chemical threats and to evacuate casualties from contaminated areas.

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The Grizzly is a variant of a large mine-resistant ambush-protected vehicle jointly developed by Krauss-Maffei Wegmann and Iveco for Italy and Germany. In Italian service, it is known as the Orso. It is based on Iveco's Trakker utility truck whereas the heavy armour – which offers protection from large anti-tank mines and armour-piercing rounds of calibres up to 12.7×99 mm – is provided by KMW. The Bavarian military plans to field up to 200 Grizzlys as battlefield ambulances and infantry mobility vehicles. The latter variant carries a unit of two plus ten fusiliers. The ambulance configuration is capable of evacuating three recumbent or six sedentary patients, its spacious interior providing ample room for an emergency physician and up to two paramedics.

ARMOURED VEHICLES (WHEELED)

ARMOURED VEHICLES ARE GENERALLY CHARACTERISED BY THEIR BEING DESIGNED TO OFFER PROTECTION AGAINST THE ENEMY'S MAIN WEAPON SYSTEMS IN THE THICK OF BATTLE. UNLIKE PROTECTED VEHICLES – WHICH EXIST MOSTLY TO SAVE THEIR INHABITANT'S LIVES IN THE EVENT OF A HIT –, ARMOURED VEHICLES MUST BE ABLE TO SOLDIER ON.

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The massive Boxer is a highly modular armoured combat vehicle developed by Rheinmetall and Krauss-Maffei Wegmann for the Dutch and German armies. It has since also been adopted by the militaries of Algeria, Australia, Great Britain and Lithuania. Tried and tested in Afghanistan, the Boxer offers protection from armour-piercing rounds of calibres up to 14.5×111 mm and can withstand centre-mass anti-tank mine detonations. Its key feature, however, is the operator's ability to integrate a large number of mission modules. This makes the Boxer easier and more affordable to maintain. The Army of the Kingdom of Bavaria owns a sizable fleet of Boxers, configured e.g. as infantry fighting vehicles, mobile command posts and self-propelled mortars.

APPENDIX C: CIVIL AVIATION OF BAVARIA

FRANCONIAN FRACHTFLUGGESELLSCHAFT

FRANCONIAN IS BAVARIA'S ONLY AIRFREIGHT CARRIER. ESTABLISHED IN 1987 AS FRÄNKISCHER KURBÄDERFLUGDIENST (FRANCONIAN SPA TOWN SHUTTLE SERVICE) TO LINK NUREMBERG WITH LUXURY RESORTS ALL OVER BAVARIA, THE COMPANY REINVENTED ITSELF AS A DEDICATED CARGO AIRLINE WITH THE AID OF CONTRACTS BY THE US ARMED FORCES. INCREASED DEMAND FOR AIRFREIGHT TRANSPORTATION SERVICES DURING THE SARS-COV-2 PANDEMIC AIDED FRANCONIAN'S GROWTH TO WHAT WOULD BECOME THE THIRD LARGEST CARGO AIRLINE IN THE CONFEDERACY OF GERMAN STATES.

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A single British Aerospace BAe 146-300, registered BV-AAGE, had entered Franconian's services in 2008. Converted into a freighter by Elbe Flugzeugwerke of Dresden, she linked Munich with London on a daily basis before being scheduled for retirement on December 30 2019. The pandemic won the aircraft a new lease of life; she has been distributing protective equipment and vaccines in Central Europe ever since. In April of 2020, Franconian revealed the "Lifeliner by Franconian" livery to raise awareness for the plight of health workers and their families affected by the pandemic. The carrier vowed to donate 2.020% of each flight's revenue to self-help groups organised by the community. Thus far, the campaign has generated more than Ƒ900,000.


Last edited by pMASTER on December 15th, 2020, 1:08 pm, edited 30 times in total.

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pMASTER
Post subject: Re: Kingdom of BavariaPosted: August 25th, 2020, 12:47 am
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EXPLANATORY NOTES

Walls of text can by tiring, so I elected to provide the information I gathered as bullet points in a – hopefully – easily digestible format. This will also allow you to skip past those parts you don't deem interesting. The following lines do naught but provide some additional information and details on my thought process.

When you think Lederhosen and Oktoberfest, you're thinking of Germany – though you ought to be thinking of Bavaria. An ancient cultural chasm marked by considerable (including linguistic and religious) differences yawns between the Prussian Germans and their Bavarian brethren. More than once did both banks of the River Main make war against each other, and oftentimes Bavaria even allied herself with Germany's "mortal enemy" France (wherefore she received the crown out of Napoleon's hands).

Even today, Bavarians are sometimes regarded as Germany's "rednecks" – whilst many an old Bavarian can still be heard mumbling: "Saupreiss!" (prussian pig) when a Northerner walks by. Northern taunts over Bavarian quirks ('Nevermind, in Bavaria they do things differently!') are usually met with ostentatious pride in Bavaria's poorhouse-to-powerhouse success story.

But although a strong Bavarian regionalism exists, it is probably best-likened to the relationship between Texas and the United States: Secessionist sentiments are toyed with but never go anywhere. The pro-independence Bayernpartei never really moved the needle; and although a sizable royalist movement does actually exist it is driven by romanticism rather than politics.

This presented me with somewhat of a problem. I wanted to create an utterly realistic AU, so I had to make concessions to reality some might perceive as odd.

Because a definitive split between Bavaria and Germany seems unthinkable and would be fraught with risk for both sides (export-reliant Bavaria would lose her access to the ocean, for instance), I elected to come up with a loose confederacy modelled after short-lived Serbia and Montenegro and the Russian-Belarussian Union State. In my mind, such a solution would keep the economic rift as small as possible but succeed in pleasing secessionist sentiments.

The highly-criticised Interstate Equalisation Payments Pact does actually exist, and the economic imbalance it is meant to negate has actually resulted in plans to restructure the territory of modern-day Germany. It also true that the Bavarian tax payer bore the brunt of Germany's part of the burden of saving the reeling Southern European Economies in 2009. Both developments disgruntled many Bavarians and since their state is seen as somewhat right-wing (perhaps rightly so), those years struck me as the most likely spark to cause a falling-out.

Other concessions mainly revolve around perceived probabilities, i.e. the question: What would fly today? I mean this in both a material and non-material sense. "Alternative universe" or not, I tried to avoid building castles in the clouds e.g. through designing unattainably large armed forces or coming up with a fictive colonial empire. I also took into consideration social changes (such as by assuming the adoption of absolute primogeniture if the monarchy were reinstated in the 2010's).

Please note pretty much all data given above is grounded in reality or on credible forecasts; most notably, I drew on the fittingly named nonfiction book 'Bayern kann es auch allein' ('Bavaria doesn't need Germany') by late Bavarian politician W. Scharnagl, and the 2016 study 'Zwangsjacke Föderalismus?' ('Federalism - a straitjacket?') by the University of Heidelberg on the potential economic impact of a German breakup.

As you might've guessed already, the perspective of this AU is the near future, around 2022 in fact.

As for the drawings; like many I began with redrawings of existing works but tried to add a personal flavour. I hope the original authors like them and feel I didn't disrespect their efforts. Many drawings I updated a little (especially where better blueprints had become available in the meantime), and I tried to give something back by drawing (as far as I know) new variants of existing vehicles and aircraft.

By now I already have much original content in the pipeline. I will continually expand the holdings of the Aʀᴍʏ ᴏꜰ ᴛʜᴇ Kɪɴɢᴅᴏᴍ ᴏꜰ Bᴀᴠᴀʀɪᴀ and also work on the inventory of Bavaria's fictitious airlines. Bavaria being a landlocked country, you're obviously not going to find any naval vessels around here. Considering the length of arms procurement programmes, a high percentage of fictitious equipment would probably hurt plausibility; that's why I'll only sprinkle in a little bit of that every here and there.

Since I'm one of those people who're never fully happy with what they do, you had best expect frequent changes and re-uploads. So… let's get this show on the road!


Last edited by pMASTER on August 25th, 2020, 4:27 am, edited 2 times in total.

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pMASTER
Post subject: Re: Kingdom of BavariaPosted: August 25th, 2020, 12:47 am
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STATUS UPDATE #001
  • Armoured Car Systems Wolf 2 (a.k.a. LAPV 5.4)
  • KMW Dingo
  • KMW Grizzly (a.k.a. GFF4)


Last edited by pMASTER on August 25th, 2020, 11:39 pm, edited 3 times in total.

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pMASTER
Post subject: Re: Kingdom of BavariaPosted: August 25th, 2020, 2:03 am
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STATUS UPDATE #002
  • KMW Boxer


Last edited by pMASTER on August 25th, 2020, 11:39 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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pMASTER
Post subject: Re: Kingdom of BavariaPosted: August 25th, 2020, 5:28 pm
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STATUS UPDATE #003
  • KMW Fennek


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pMASTER
Post subject: Re: Kingdom of BavariaPosted: August 25th, 2020, 11:41 pm
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STATUS UPDATE #004
  • Applied the fixes suggested by @charguizard. Thanks again! 8-)


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TJW
Post subject: Re: Kingdom of BavariaPosted: August 26th, 2020, 2:19 am
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Location: Sydney, Australia
Congratulations. This looks really interesting. Great start. I'm looking forward to seeing some more. I really like the more realistic AUs.


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pMASTER
Post subject: Re: Kingdom of BavariaPosted: August 26th, 2020, 2:53 am
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Thank you very much!


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pMASTER
Post subject: Re: Kingdom of BavariaPosted: August 26th, 2020, 9:46 pm
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STATUS UPDATE #005
  • Mercedes-Benz Wolf 1 (a.k.a. G-Wagen)


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pMASTER
Post subject: Re: Kingdom of BavariaPosted: August 27th, 2020, 6:55 pm
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STATUS UPDATE #006
  • Tatra Lama (a.k.a. T 810)
  • Iveco Ratel (a.k.a. LMV 2)

That's it for now; I need to return to work. :shock:


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