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eswube
Post subject: Re: Polish WingsPosted: February 25th, 2016, 8:36 pm
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That's very kind but no, thanks. :)
I prefer drawing blanks over paint schemes anyway (and large numbers of the paint schemes I usually do are just because I'd like to "see them done" while I can't expect that anyone else would do them "as many as I want and the way I want" ;) :lol: ).

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eswube
Post subject: Re: Polish WingsPosted: October 7th, 2016, 10:21 pm
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I'm very happy to - at long last - post next part of Polish Wings. Traditionally it starts with "period introduction" - this time very long - for three posts - only then followed by pics. Probably nobody will read it - maybe - and that's just "maybe" - except Hood, but I thought that without such introduction it wouldn't be complete ;)

Polish aviation 1943-2015

At last, the time has come to take care of the aviation of the "communist" era Poland and of modern era (grouped together, because - leaving politics, esprit de corps and whatnot - of the practical continuity of these two periods, particularly in the material and organizational sense). Besides the Poland's national airline PLL LOT, which was already covered at the beginning of this thread, it will also not cover any private airlines nor privately-imported (non-domestic built) sports/general aviation aircraft (but will cover domestically built sports aircraft).

Description of Poland's political history post-1943 is outside the scope of this thread (and indeed of this website ;) ). Suffice to say, that although between 1941 and 1943 Polish Government in Exile and Soviet Union maintained diplomatic and military relations (even if very tense and unfriendly ones), various reasons compelled Stalin to decide it's more convenient to have "his own" Polish government and Polish Army, operating from Soviet territory (and dependent on it), especially after the diplomatic relations have been broken in 1943 after the discovery of the Katyń Massacre, by which time foundations for these Soviet-sponsored organizations were already laid.
From the late 1943 Polish formations fought on the Eastern Front, taking part in the liberation of Poland as well as Battle of Berlin. At country, Polish communists, took power, initially under the guise of nominal democracy (albeit actually very tightly controlled), but gradually evolving by late 1940s into stalinist state. Khrushchev's "secret speech" on 20th Congress of the CPSU started wave of destalinization, which also initiated quick transformation of Poland (since 1952 officially named Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa - People's Republic of Poland) from a stalinist totalitarianism to relatively benign (for a Soviet-bloc country, of course) authoritarism. During the next quarter of the century Poland experienced gradual loosening of ideological corset, accompanied by ups and downs in economy, which in turn led to creation of organized political opposition in 1980-1981, in the form of "Solidarity" Trade Union. In December 1981 a martial law was introduced (suspended in 1982 and ended in 1983) and rest of the 1980s passed on, ultimately futile, attempts to reform the socialist system.
1989 saw the agreement between government and the opposition, which paved way to first partially-free parliamentary elections in 1989 (communists had secured certain number of seats in parliament by default, office of president and certain portfolios in the government, including defence, security and foreign affairs), wholly-free presidential and local elections in 1990 and wholly-free parliamentary elections in 1991, accompanied by transition to market economy. In 1991 Poland joined Council of Europe, in 1995 WTO and OSCE, in 1999 NATO (from 1994 participation in Partnership for Peace) and in 2004 the European Union.

Note: I'm often putting the word "communism" in quotation marks, especially when referring to a historical period or actual system of government, because, technically speaking, no country has ever built actual communism as defined by Marx and Engels and Soviet-bloc countries were, by their own description, "socialist" (which was also, technically, not exactly true) and only aiming to ultimately build communism in the future.


1) Polish Military Aviation on the Eastern Front 1943-1945

Note: here and in later chapters military ranks will be given in English language, but general officer ranks may need certain clarification: in Polish military they are (from bottom to the top): generał brygady (one star) - brigade general, here abbreviated brig.gen.; generał dywizji (two star) - division general, here: div.gen.; generał broni (three star) - general of arms, here gen.arms; generał armii (until 2002) / generał (since 2002, four stars), general - general of the army / general, here: gen.army / gen.; Marszałek Polski - Marshal of Poland.

Nearly all Polish aviation personnel that had a bad luck to end up in Soviet Union after 1939 campaign (and survived it) was evacuated to Great Britain in 1941-1942 where they joined Polish Air Force in Exile. Despite that, when in 1943 formation of Polish forces in the Soviet Union (and politcally backed by it) has begun, it has been also decided to create aviation units. (It should be noted, that when in late 1942 units of subordinated to London-based Government in Exile Polskie Siły Zbrojne w ZSRR (Polish Armed Forces in the USSR) - commonly called Anders's Army after it's commander - were evacuated to the Middle East, they weren't able to take with them all Polish citizens that were deported to the Soviet Union since 1939, not least because many of them were still on their way from Gulags when the army left USSR - later these people were used to create Soviet-backed Polish forces - not because of their own political preference but because it was basically their only chance to escape their fate in "Workers Paradise").

On 14 May 1943 formation of 1 Dywizja Piechoty imienia Tadeusza Kościuszki (1 DP, 1 Infantry Division named after Tadeusz Kościuszko) at Seltse on Oka near Ryazan has begun and shortly after formation of 1 Samodzielna Eskadra Myśliwska (1 SEM, 1 Autonomous Fighter Squadron) at Grigorevskoye also commenced. Already in August 1943 it has been decided to expand the new Polskie Siły Zbrojne w ZSRR from one division to whole corps (1 Korpus Polskich Sił Zbrojnych w ZSRR - 1 Corps of Polish Armed Forces in the USSR), with corresponding expansion of 1 SEM into 1 Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego "Warszawa" (1 Fighter Aviation Regiment "Warszawa").

Because among the personnel of 1 DP there were literally just several people with any actual aviation-related experience (although throughout the whole war Soviet military authorities were aiding by seconding Soviet personnel of Polish origin to PSZ w ZSRR), the formation and training process of the 1 PLM had to be conducted literally from the most basic foundations, for which reason the regiment entered operational service only a year after its formation. In the meantime, in March 1944, 1 Korpus was again expanded, into 1 Armia Polska, in July changed to 1 Armia Wojska Polskiego (1 Polish Army). Shortly after, due to liberation of the easternmost portions of the pre-war Polish territory (which, though, after the war become part of the USSR), with significant Polish population, formation of new air units has begun: 2 Pułk Nocnych Bombowców "Kraków" (2 PNB, 2 Night Bomber Regiment "Kraków") with Po-2 harrasment bombers and 103 Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Łącznikowego (103 SELŁ, 103 Autonomous Liaison Aviation Squadron).

June 1944 saw significant organizational expansion of the force. At headquarters of 1 AWP the Oddział Lotniczy was formed as administrative command of air units, headed by col. Józef Smaga (seconded from Red Army). At the same time in several Soviet aviation schools Polish classes (groups) were formed, accomodating the planned further expansion of the Polish air force on the eastern front. These schools were:
-9 Voennaya Aviatsionnaya Shkola Pervonachalnogo Obuchenya (9 Military Aviation School of Basic Training) at Buguruslan;
-10 Voennaya Aviatsionnaya Shkola Pervonachalnogo Obuchenya at Serochynsk;
-14 Voennaya Aviatsionnaya Shkola at Yegorevsk (training of pilots and navigators of Po-2LNB night bombers);
-2 Voennoe Avio-Uchilishche Letchikov Nablyudateley (2 Military Air-Training Centre of Aviators-Navigators) at Chkalov (training of navigators for Pe-2 bombers);
-87 Voennaya Aviatsionnaya Shkola Vozdushnyh Strelkov (87 Military Aviation School of Air Gunners) at Grechovka-Kinel (training of Il-2 gunners);
-2 Voennaya Shkola Aviomekhanikov (2 Military School of Aviation Technicians) at Volsk.
From Autumn 1944 graduates of first two schools were sent for further training to:
-1 Krasnoznamennaya Kachenskaya Voyennaya Avia-Shkola (1 Awarded with Order of Red Banner Military Aviation School of Kachyn) at Krasny Kut (fighter pilots);
-1 Chkalovskaya Voyennaya Avia-Shkola Pilotov imenii K. Ye. Voroshilova (1 Military Aviation School for Pilots of Chkalovsk, named after K. Ye. Voroshilov) at Chkalovsk (attack pilots);
-Engelskoye Voenno-Vozdushnye Aviatsionnoye Uchilishche imenii Geroya Sovetskogo Soyuza - Marii Mariny Rasskovoy (Miliatary Aviation Training Centre of Engels named after Hero of the Soviet Union - Maria Marina Rasskova) at Engels (bomber pilots).

In mid-July 1944 first portions of Polish territory located west of Curzon line (meaning: current border) were liberated. That caused beginning of formation of the 2 AWP and further expansion of the air force. It was planned to eventually form a whole Polish Front (army group) composed of three armies and two corps with supporting aviation. Month later, on 23 August 1944, 1 PLM, 2 PNB and Soviet 611 Shturmovy Aviatsionny Polk (611 ShAP, 611 Attack Aviation Regiment) begun combat operations under the command of the Oddział Lotniczy, supporting 1 AWP during combat operations in the Warsaw area. On the 30 August 1944 Oddział Lotniczy was renamed 1 Dywizja Lotnicza (1 DL, 1 Aviation Division).

Autumn of 1944 saw huge expansion of the air force, with formation on 1 October 1944 the 1 Mieszany Korpus Lotniczy (1 MKL, 1 Composite Aviation Corps), led by brig.gen. Filipp Agaltsov (in Polish: Filip Agalcow; from the Red Army Air Force, future Marshal of Aviation and head of Soviet Strategic Aviation), composed of three air divisions:
-1 Dywizja Lotnictwa Bombowego (1 Bomber Aviation Division) with three bomber regiments;
-2 Dywizja Lotnictwa Szturmowego (2 Attack Aviation Division) with three attack regiments;
-3 Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego (3 Fighter Aviation Division) with three fighter regiments.
Correspondingly, 1 DL was renamed 4 Mieszana Dywizja Lotnicza (4 Composite Air Division) and 611 ShAP was reinforced with Polish personnel, transferred formally to Polish air force and renamed 3 Pułk Lotnictwa Szturmowego (3 Attack Aviation Regiment).
Shortly thereafter, headquarters and direct-reporting units (but not combat ones, just transport, liaison, ground support etc.) of the Soviet 6 Vozdushnaya Armiya (6 Air Army) were transferred to Polish armed forces and renamed Dowództwo Lotnictwa Frontu Polskiego (Aviation Command of the Polish Front), due to resignation of forming of the 3 AWP and Front HQ (due to personnel constraints), soon renamed in November as Dowództwo Lotnictwa Wojska Polskiego (Aviation Command of the Polish Army), led by gen.arms Fedor Polynin (in Polish: Fiodor Połynin; also from the Red Army Air Force). It has to be noted, though, that those units were all (except with those already mentioned, of course) essentialy Soviet units, with skeleton Soviet cadres, that were only gradually filled with Polish personnel. These changes were followed by establishment in December of Szkoła Lotnicza Wojska Polskiego (Aviational School of the Polish Army), first at Zamość and from March 1945 in Dęblin, where it was renamed as Wojskowa Szkoła Pilotów (Military School of Pilots).

During the late autumn of 1944 and winter of 1945 expansion of the LWP (Lotnictwo Wojska Polskiego - Aviation of the Polish Army) was taking place, with ex-Soviet units being filled with newly-trained Polish personnel, and wholly new units were formed. In March an Oddział Lotnictwa Cywilnego (OLC, Civil Aviation Unit) was formed within LWD to serve the air transport needs of the government in the civilian sphere (details were already described by me on page 5 of this thread). In the first week of the Soviet Winter Offensive of 1945 4 MDL remained in the Warsaw area, but in February it was transferred to the frontline and took part in battles in central and western Pomerania, including breaking of the Pommernstellung and capture of Kolberg (now: Kołobrzeg) and Stettin (now: Szczecin). In April 1945 1 MKL also entered combat, taking part in the Battle of Berlin.

All together, LWP aircraft flew 13 624 sorties (5867 by combat units, 7757 by auxiliary units) during 13 976 hours of flight time. 16 enemy aircraft were shot down and further 4 destroyed on the ground. Also destroyed were: 25 tanks, 1300 cars, 723 guns and mortars, 5 vessels, 28 locomotives, 294 rail carriages and numerous enemy personnel killed. Own losses amounted to 94 men, including 25 aviators killed in action and rest died of wounds. Equipment losses: 36 own aircraft destroyed and 24 heavily damaged.

On the 1 May 1945 LWP had 15 574 of personnel (including 737 pilots and 272 navigators): 7 generals, 3335 commissioned officers, 5149 NCO's and 7083 other ranks, while OLC had additional 1279 of personnel, including 349 commissioned officers, 199 NCO's and 731 other ranks. It's order of battle was as follows:

1 Mieszany Korpus Lotniczy (1 MKL, 1 Composite Aviation Corps)
- headquarters and headquarters flight - 1 Yak-1M, 1 Yak-3, 1 Il-2, 1 Pe-2, 6 Po-2, 1 UT-2, 1 Li-2, 1 C-47
- 2 Eskadra Łącznikowa (2 EŁ, 2 Liaison Squadron) - 14 Po-2
- 1 Dywizja Lotnictwa Bombowego (1 DLB, 1 Bomber Aviation Division)
__- headquarters and headquarters flight - 1 Pe-2, 4 Po-2
__- 3 Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowego (3 PLB, 3 Bomber Aviation Regiment) - 30 Pe-2, 1 UT-2
__- 4 Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowego - 30 Pe-2, 1 Po-2, 2 UT-2
__- 5 Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowego - 30 Pe-2, 2 UT-2
- 2 Dywizja Lotnictwa Szturmowego (2 DLSz, 2 Attack Aviation Division)
__- headquarters and headquarters flight - 4 Il-2, 3 Po-2
__- 6 Pułk Lotnictwa Szturmowego (6 PLSz, 6 Attack Aviation Regiment) - 31 Il-2, 1 Po-2
__- 7 Pułk Lotnictwa Szturmowego - 30 Il-2, 2 Po-2
__- 8 Pułk Lotnictwa Szturmowego - 29 Il-2
- 3 Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego (3 DLM, 3 Fighter Aviation Division)
__- headquarters and headquarters flight - 2 Yak-3, 2 Yak-9, 2 Po-2
__- 9 Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego (9 PLM, 9 Fighter Aviation Regiment) - 4 Yak-3, 30 Yak-9, 1 Po-2
__- 10 Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - 4 Yak-3, 30 Yak-9, 1 Po-2
__- 11 Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - 4 Yak-3, 31 Yak-9, 1 Po-2
4 Mieszana Dywizja Lotnicza (4 MDL, 4 Composite Aviation Division)
- headquarters and headquarters flight - 3 Po-2, 1 UTI-4
- 1 Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego "Warszawa" - 23 Yak-1M, 1 Yak-3, 2 Yak-7, 15 Yak-9, 2 Po-2
- 2 Pułk Nocnych Bombowców "Kraków" (2 PNB, 2 Night Bombers Regiment) - 39 Po-2LNB
- 3 Pułk Lotnictwa Szturmowego - 33 Il-2, 1 Po-2
direct reporting units
- 12 Pułk Lotnictwa Sanitarnego (12 PLS, 12 Medical Evacuation Aviation Regiment) - 28 Po-2 (attached to HQ of military health service)
- 13 Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego (13 PLT, 13 Transport Aviation Regiment) - 32 Po-2, 1 Shche-2
- 14 Pułk Rozpoznania Lotniczego i Korygowania Ognia Artylerii (14 PRLiKOA, 14 Air Reconnaissance and Artillery Spotting Regiment) - 16 Il-2, 5 Po-2
- 17 Pułk Lotnictwa Łącznikowego (17 PLŁ, 17 Liaison Aviation Regiment) - 31 Po-2
- 2 Eskadra Sztabowa (2 ESzt, 2 Staff Squadron) - 1 Yak-9, 1 Il-2, 1 Pe-2, 6 Po-2, 1 Li-2, 1 C-47, 1 P-39
- 3 Eskadra Lotnictwa Łącznikowego (3 ELŁ, 3 Liaison Aviation Squadron) - 9 Po-2 (attached to 2 AWP)
- 4 Eskadra Lotnictwa Łącznikowego - 10 Po-2
- 5 Eskadra Lotnictwa Łącznikowego - 10 Po-2
- 6 Samodzielna Eskadra Transportowa Specjalnego Przeznaczenia (6 SET SP, 6 Autonomous Special-Purpose Transport Squadron) - 4 Li-2, 4 C-47
- 103 Eskadra Lotnictwa Łącznikowego - 12 Po-2 (attached to 1 AWP)
- Klucz Łącznikowy Korpusu Pancernego (Liaison Flight of the Armored Corps) - 3 Po-2
- Klucz Łącznikowy 7 Rejonu Baz Lotniczych (Liaison Flight of the 7 Air Base Region) - 3 Po-2
Oddział Lotnictwa Cywilnego (OLC, Civil Aviation Unit)
- 18 Samodzielny Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego (18 SPLT, 18 Autonomous Transport Aviation Regiment) - 57 Po-2
- 19 Samodzielny Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - 48 Po-2
- 7 Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Transportowego (7 SELT, 7 Autonomous Transport Aviation Squadron) - 9 Li-2
- 8 Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Transportowego - 10 Po-2 (attached to Korpus Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego - KBW, Internal Security Corps)
training units
- Wojskowa Szkoła Pilotów (Military Pilots School) - 22 Yak-9, 18 Il-2, 12 Pe-2, 6 Po-2, 26 UT-2, 2 Shche-2, 1 La-5
- 15 Zapasowy Pułk Lotniczy (15 ZPL, 15 Aviational Replacements Regiment) - 6 Yak-1M, 5 Yak-7, 10 Il-2, 6 Pe-2, 3 Po-2, 13 UT-2, 2 Shche-2, 1 UTI-4

In total it had 897 aircraft (nominal strength 961): 30 Yak-1M, 16 Yak-3, 7 Yak-7, 131 Yak-9, 173 Il-2, 111 Pe-2, 354 Po-2, 45 UT-2, 15 Li-2, 6 C-47, 5 Shche-2, 2 UTI-4, 1 La-5, 1 P-39.


2) Polish aviation industry since 1945

German occupation of Poland resulted in near-total desctruction of Polish aviation industry. Although those production establishments that escaped complete destruction in 1939 were used by occupiers in support of their war effort, generally as repair/refit depots, they were either "evacuated" or destroyed in 1944-1945, leaving at best empty walls. Despite enormous difficulties, already in late 1944 first steps to revive Polish aviation industry were made, based on surviving pre-war personnel.

Aircraft Design Bureaus and Manufacturers
In October of 1944 in Lublin the - Biuro Projektów i Studiów Ministerstwa Komunikacji, Poczt i Telegrafów (Office of Projects and Studies of the Ministry of Communications, Posts and Telegraphs) headed by Tadeusz Sołtyk was formed. In February of 1945 it was moved to recently-liberated Łódź and two months later renamed Lotnicze Zakłady Doświadczalne (LWD, Aviational Experimental Works). Also in 1945 in Warsaw the Instytut Techniczny Lotnictwa (ITL, Aviation Technical Institute) was formed to conduct basic aeronautical research and oversee flight trials of all new designs (renamed in 1948 into Główny Instytut Lotnictwa - GIL, Main Aviation Institute), and in 1946 at Warszawa-Okęcie the Centralne Studium Samolotów (CSS, Central Aircraft Study) was created, with intent to make it a central prototype-building establishment (with series production to be done at other factories). Meanwhile the airframe factories were being rebuilt. Mielec factory - now named Państwowe Zakłady Lotnicze, Zakład Numer 1 (PZL Nr 1) started work on limited scale already in 1945 (mostly repairing ex-German aircraft), while Okęcie factory was literally razed to the ground by Germans and had to be essentialy rebuilt from scratch and therefore was opened only in 1949, followed by factory at Świdnik.

In 1949 aviation industry was reorganized: factories were transferred from ministry of communications to ministry of heavy industry under Centralny Zarząd Przemysłu Sprzętu Komunikacyjnego (Central Administration of the Industry of Communications Equipment) and renamed from PZL (which, as pre-war name was in stalinist era highly politically uncorrect) into Wytwórnia Sprzętu Komunikacyjnego (WSK, Communications Equipment Factory) - WSK Mielec, WSK Rzeszów, WSK Gorzyce and so on. Next reorganization, but regarding design bureaus, happened in 1952 when LWD and CSS were merged into GIL, now renamed Instytut Lotnictwa (IL, Institute of Aviation)), tasked with both basic aeronautical research and with designing aircraft.

Post-stalinist thaw resulted in next renaming: in 1957 WSK works were renamed WSK-PZL, thereby reintroducing (partially) traditional name. At the same time Świdnik works become gradually specialized in helicopter production, and IL was in process of transferring its design activities directly to factories, where design bureaus were established. Although intent of that last move was to have IL concentrate on basic research, it continued to design aircraft on its own.

That arrangement basically lasted for the rest of the "communist" period, but transition to market economy created new challenges which led to reorganization and gradual privatization of industry, unfortunately accompanied with load of irresponsible and unreasonable decisions, weird bussiness practices (amounting almost to hostile takeovers), shady operations (and numerous formal investigations) and scandals (most important - and blatantly criminal - and of course unpunished - being the issue of industriall offset for purchase of F-16 from Lockheed-Martin). Nowadays IL remains state-owned research institution, PZL Warszawa-Okęcie was taken over in 2001 by Spanish CASA and through further mergers eventually to Airbus Defence and Space. PZL Mielec was sold in 2007 to Sikorsky Aircraft (United Technologies) and PZL Świdnik was purchased in 2009 by Agusta-Westland. On the other hand, post-1989 changes brought the establishment of several more-or-less succesful private produces of light aircraft.

Glider Manufacturers
Already before the war it was established as dominant view in Poland that pilot's training should begin on gliders and that approach has not changed after 1945, thereby creating huge demand for gliders. In order to meet this demand, already in 1945 several establishments undertook work in this field. These were:
-Centralny Ośrodek Szybowcowy (Central Glider Centre), renamed year later into Instytut Szybownictwa (IS, Gliding Institute) at Bielsko;
-Okręgowe Warsztaty Szybowcowe (District Glider Workshops) at Jeżów Sudecki (formerly German Grunau of the Grunau Baby fame);
-Okręgowe Warsztaty Szybowcowe at Krosno;
-Okręgowe Warsztaty Lotnicze Nr 4 (District Aviational Workshops No.4) at Gdańsk;
-Okręgowe Warsztaty Lotnicze Nr 5 at Wrocław.
Initially they mostly repaired ex-German gliders (as well as repairs of Po-2 and Piper L-4 aircraft for sports aviation), but also begun producing their copies on the small scale, while IS also commenced works on designing new gliders.

In 1948 the Zakłady Sprzętu Lotnictwa Sportowego (ZSLS, Sports Aviation Equipment Works) were formed in Warszawa as the administrative overhead over abovementioned establishments, which were renamed: IS become Szybowcowe Zakłady Doświadczalne (SZD, Glider Experimental Works), while other become ZSLS's with numbers: ZSLS-2 (Jeżów), ZSLS-3 (Poznań), ZSLS-4 (Gdańsk), ZSLS-5 (Krosno). Additionaly short-lived Warsztaty Szybowcowe (Glider Workshops) in Lubawka existed between 1948 and 1951. All of these establishments were manufacturing gliders desinged in SZD design bureau.

In 1954 ZSLS-4 were moved from Gdańsk to Wrocław. Year 1963 saw next reorganization: ZSLS centre in Warsaw was liquidated, Jeżów and Wrocław works become branches of SZD and Poznań and Krosno works were transferred to WSK and converted into other types of aviation-related production. In 1975 SZD was renamed PZL-Bielsko, although it's products were still designated in SZD-(number) format.

Period after 1989 was difficult for PZL-Bielsko as it struggled to adapt to market economy and eventually in 1999 it was declared bankrupt. Eventually, though, establishments at Bielsko and Jeżów (but not in Wrocław) were taken over by private companies that continue glider (and indeed SZD/PZL-related) activity there.

Engine and Equipment Manufacturers
Besides the airframes and final assembly, aircraft production obviously demands various other elements, most importantly engines, but also numerous specialized equipment. For that reason post-war Polish aviation industry had a number of specialized factories within WSK/PZL conglomerate. Engines were produced in Rzeszów and Kalisz, installations at Poznań, undercarriages (and certain structural elements, while in 1980s some aircraft and glider designs were made) at Krosno, hydraulical equipment at Wrocław (not at SZD branch, but at Hydral works), alloy castings at Gorzyce, various other equipment at Warszawa (PZL Warszawa II) and Kraków, with smaller items produced by numerous other sub-contractors around the country.

After 1989 they were generally - like whole industry - privatized (at least in nominal sense). Rzeszów factory was purchased by United Technologies Corporation and is now Pratt & Whitney Rzeszów, Kalisz works belong to Polska Grupa Zbrojeniowa (PGZ, Polish Armaments Group parastatal, Poznań belongs to government Agencja Rozwoju Przemysłu (ARP, Industry Development Agency), Krosno works become private and now specializes in production unrelated to aviation, Wrocław works belong to Hamilton Standard, Gorzyce to Federal-Mogul Corporation.

Military Research and Maintenance Institutions
Shortly after the war the then-field maintenance workshops were converted into static institutions, of which four were formed: in Łódź, Bydgoszcz, Warszawa and Dęblin - initially as Lotnicze Warsztaty (Aviational Workshops) with appropriate number, subsequently renamed to Lotnicze Zakłady Remontowe (LZR, Aviational Refit Works) and in 1982 to Wojskowe Zakłady Lotnicze (WZL, Military Aviational Works) number 1 to 4 respectively. WZL-2 and WZL-4 specialized in fixed-wing aircraft, WZL-1 in helicopters and WZL-3 in engines, and although their main purpose was conducting routine repairs and refits, they also developed number of modifications and produced some other devices, including flying targets or experimental drones and even - after 1989 - light sports aircraft.

In 1953 the Instytut Naukowo-Badawczy Wojsk Lotniczych (INBWL, Air Forces Scientifico-Research Institute) was formed, in 1958 renamed Instytut Techniczny Wojsk Lotniczych (ITWL, Air Forces Technical Institute) under which name it exists to this day. During its existence ITWL designed number of modifications of airframes used by military aviation as well as numerous target and experimental drones, items of specialized equipment and participated in R&D projects both for military and civilian purposes.


3) Military aviation since 1945

Post-war drawdown (1945-1949)
Size of the LWP was clearly not well suite to the financial capacity of the devastated Poland, therefore once the air force's units were redeployed to peacetime bases (mostly in central Poland) in mid-1945, the process of large-scale reductions begun. Already in 1945 the headquarters and attached units of 1 MKL were disbanded, followed by majority of transport and liaison units, with OLC assets being transferred to civil aviation. Early 1946 saw disbandment of 2 (of 4) divisional headquarters and of 5 (of 12) combat aviation regiments. At the same time number of types of aircraft in use was reduced, leaving only most standard ones.

In March 1946 LWP's order of battle was as follows:
- 1 DLM (Kraków) with 1 PLM (Modlin), 2 PLM (Kraków), 3 PLM (Gdynia)
- 2 DLSz (Łódź) with 4 PLSz (Bydgoszcz), 5 PLSz (Bydgoszcz), 6 PLSz (Tomaszów Mazowiecki)
- direct reporting units - 7 SPBN (Poznań), 2 SMPL (Parzniew near Pruszków), 6 SELT (Warszawa)
- training establishments - Wojskowa Szkoła Pilotów (Military School of Pilots, Dęblin), Wojskowa Techniczna Szkoła Lotnicza (Military Technical Aviational School, Boernerowo (Warszawa))
plus ground support units

Abbreviations:
-DLM - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Division
-DLSz - Dywizja Lotnictwa Szturmowego - Attack Aviation Division
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLSz - Pułk Lotnictwa Szturmowego - Attack Aviation Regiment
-SPBN - Samodzielny Pułk Bombowców Nurkujących - Autonomous Dive-bomber Regiment
-SMPL - Samodzielny Mieszany Pułk Lotniczy - Autonomous Composite Air Regiment
-SELT - Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Transportowego - Autonomous Transport Aviation Squadron

In autumn of 1946 remaining two divisional headquarters were also disbanded, leaving no intermediate command echelon between regiments and LWP command. 2 SMPL and 6 SELT were merged into Specjalny Pułk Lotniczy (SPL, Special Aviational Regiment). In March 1947 Lotnictwo Wojska Polskiego was renamed Wojska Lotnicze (WLot., Aviational Forces. Gen.arms Połynin returned to USSR and next air force chief become brig.gen. Aleksander Romeyko. Next two years bring few significant structural changes, except for some slight name changes and establishment of the Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnicza Marynarki Wojennej (SEL MW, Autonomous Aviation Squadron of the Navy) with two flights of attack aircraft and one each of fighters, bombers and liaison aircraft, Eskadra Aerofotogrametryczna (EA, Aerial Survey Squadron) and 6 Samodzielna Kompania Radarowa (6 SKR, 6 Autonomous Radar Company) with several radar stations mostly of Lend-Lease vintage and useful only for training.

In 1949 Polish Army was at it's Cold War-era low. On 1 January total personnel strength was 129.881 men, including 113.327 in the Wojska Lądowe (WLąd, Land Forces), organized in 6 military districts, 16 (very understrength) infantry divisions, 3 heavy artillery brigades, 6 tank regiments (battalion-sized), 4 armored artillery regiments, 3 AAA regiments, 4 engineering regiments, 1 pontoon regiment and support units with 211 tanks, 160 self-propelled guns, 43 armored cars, 1980 guns and howitzers, 1747 mortars, 4 Katyushas, 101 AA guns (37 and 85mm).
Marynarka Wojenna (MW, Navy) had 7906 men, destroyer, 3 submarines, 3 guard ships, 2 motor torpedo boats, 12 chasers, 12 minesweepers and 50 auxiliary craft plus air squadron. It's coastal artillery had one battalion with 12 130mm guns and one rail artillery battalion with 5 French 194mm cannons.
Wojska Lotnicze had 8500 men, 3 fighter regiments, 3 attack regiments, bomber regiment, transport regiment ("special") and training units.

Cold War expansion (1949-1956)
Increasingly tense international situation in Europe necessitated an expansion of the Polish armed forces. Plan for that was created in 1947 for the years 1949-1956 and according to it, personnel strength of the armed forces was to grow to 230.000. Army was to retain 16 divisions, but with 2 tank and 2 mechanized (at the same time number of military districts were to be reduced to 4, with intermediate corps-level being introduced) while artillery, air defence, engineers and other services were to be appropriately strenghtened. Air force was to be expanded to 2 fighter, 1 attack and 1 bomber division, 2 recon regiments, 1 transport regiment and 2 spotter squadrons. Additionaly air defence forces were to be established with 2 fighter divisions and 5 AAA regiments.

The 1947 plan assumed moderate and balanced growth, in line with economical capacity of Poland. Unfortunately, by the time it's implementation begun, international tensions were already running high and Stalin wanted Polish military much larger and on a tighter leash, therefore in 1949 marshal Michał Rola-Żymierski was replaced as minister of defence by marshal Konstanty Rokossowski from the Soviet Army (who, on that occasion become Marshal of Poland, deputy prime minister, member of parliament and member of the Politburo of the ruling party), accompanied by large number of Soviet officers of high ranks who took over majority of top-level posts in the military - among others, in 1950 gen. Romeyko was replaced by gen.arms Iwan Turkiel.

For the first several months after the leadership change the changes made to expansion plan were relatively moderate - in terms of personnel it added only 32.000 men. At the same time, in late 1949, SEL MW was expanded to 30 Pułk Lotniczy MW (30 PL MW, 30 Aviation Regiment of the Navy) and air force received deliveries of it's new combat aircraft: Il-10 attack planes, Tu-2 bombers and most importantly of the first Yak-17 jet fighters.

With the Korean War in full swing, however, even modified plans were considered not enough bythe Kremlin and in January 1951 marshal Rokossowski introduced new program, this time very ambitious one (and, as the future showed, one that completely disregarded economical realities). Total strength of the armed forces were to increase to nearly 400.000. Land forces were to expand to 24 mechanized and infantry divisions, 2 heavy artillery divisions, 2 AAA divisions (of the ground forces). Relatively largest growth were to happen in the WLot. - they were to have total of 2 air corps' with 3 interceptor divisions, 3 fighter divisions, 3 attack divisions, 1 bomber division, 1 night bomber brigade (reserve formation activated upon mobilization) and whole assortment of support and training units. Additionaly, in 1951 a Wojska Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Obszaru Kraju (WOPOK, Forces of Anti-Aircraft Defense of the National Area) were formed as separate service with brig.gen. Nikołaj Trawin as commander, replaced in 1952 by brig.gen. Sergiej Sazonow. WOPOK was to be composed of 1 AAA corps, 1 AAA division and 6 separate AAA regiments (total: 17 AAA regiments) together with necessary early warning assets.

Planned air force order of battle for 1955 was as follows:
3 KLM (HQ: Bydgoszcz)
- 6 DLM (HQ: Wrocław) - 3 PLM, 20 PLM, 43 PLM
- 9 DLM (HQ: Bydgoszcz) - 26 PLM, 29 PLM, 41 PLM
- 11 DLM (HQ: Piła) - 11 PLM, 24 PLM, 27 PLM
4 KLSz (HQ: Modlin)
- 8 DLSz (HQ: Nowy Dwór) - 4 PLSz, 46 PLSz, 48 PLSz
- 13 DLSz (HQ: Bydgoszcz ?) - 5 PLSz, 50 PLSz, 51 PLSz
- 16 DLSz (HQ: Piła) - 6 PLSz, 53 PLSz, 57 PLSz
5 DLM OPL (HQ: Warszawa) - 1 PLM OPL, 13 PLM OPL, 31 PLM OPL
7 DLM OPL (HQ: Kraków) - 2 PLM OPL, 39 PLM OPL, 40 PLM OPL
10 DLM OPL (HQ: Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz) - 23 PLM OPL, 25 PLM OPL, 28 PLM OPL
15 DLB (HQ: Malbork) - 7 PLB, 33 PLB, 35 PLB
BBN (HQ: Zamość) - ? PBN, ? PBN (reserve units, activated upon mobilization)
separate units - 21 PLZ (Zamość), 36 SPL (Warszawa), SEL (Warszawa), 1 LEKOA (Modlin), 12 LEKOA (Warszawa) plus 3 liaison flights in military district HQ's, expanded on mobilization to liaison squadrons
LMW (HQ: Gdynia) - 34 PLM MW, 30 PL MW

Abbreviations:
-BBN - Brygada Bombowców Nocnych - Night Bomber Brigade
-DLM - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Division
-DLM OPL - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Fighter Aviation Division of the Anti-Aircraft Defense
-DLSz - Dywizja Lotnictwa Szturmowego - Attack Aviation Division
-DLB - Dywizja Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Division
-KLM - Korpus Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Corps
-KLSz - Korpus Lotnictwa Szturmowego - Attack Aviation Corps
-LEKOA - Lotnicza Eskadra Korygowania Ognia Artylerii - Aviation Squadron for Artillery Fire Correction
-LMW - Lotnictwo Marynarki Wojennej - Naval Aviation
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLM OPL - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Anti-Aircraft Defense
-PLM MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Marynarki Wojennej - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PLSz - Pułk Lotnictwa Szturmowego - Attack Aviation Regiment
-PLB - Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Regiment
-PLZ - Pułk Lotnictwa Zwiadowczego - lit. Scouting Aviation Regiment - Recce Aviation Regiment
-PL MW - Pułk Lotniczy Marynarki Wojennej - Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-SEL - Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnicza - Autonomous Aviation Squadron
-SPL - Specjalny Pułk Lotniczy - Special Aviation Regiment

These projects proven far too ambitious for a country that was only just slowly raising from enormous devastation suffered in World War 2, and since the emphasis was put on the rapid implementation of these plans, exponential growth of the defence spending caused economy to virtually collapse. As a result, already in 1952 certain streamlining (downwards) was made, and while expansion continued, it was done at slightly slower pace. At the same time, while on paper both land and air forces (navy to lesser extent) looked impressive, nearly all units were seriously understrength, mainly in regards to equipment: majority of air regiments had enough aircraft just for a single squadron, tank regiments had usually just enough tanks for barely two companies and majority of infantry divisions weren't equipped even to relatively austere standards of 1945-division, with some of them using "temporarily" horse transport instead of planned motor one.

Polish Armed Forces on 1 December 1952
Wojska Lądowe
Okręg Wojskowy Nr I (Military District No.1, Warszawa)

- 8 KP (Olsztyn) - 15 DP (Olsztyn), 21 DP (Lidzbark Warmiński), 22 DP (Giżycko), 139 PAC (Olsztyn), 61 bsap., 50 bł
- 9 KP (Lublin) - 3 DP (Lublin), 24 DP (Zambrów), 25 DP (Siedlce), 118 PAC (Lublin), 68 bsap., 53 bł
- 1 DP (Legionowo), 18 DP (Ełk), 8 DAPrzeł. (Orzysz), 2 CBS (Kazuń), 6 CBS (Dęblin), 11 sPCz (Giżycko), 7 ZPPont. (Płock), 5 PŁ (Warszawa), 63 bdm (Płock), 2 bmo (Orzysz), 17 bł (Legionowo), 29 bel-tech. (Dęblin), 23 brad. (Warszawa), 16 brpeleng. (Beniaminów)
Okręg Wojskowy Nr II (Military District No.2, Bydgoszcz)
-1 KZ (Gdańsk) - 8 DZ (Koszalin), 16 DZ (Elbląg), 4 PCzC (Lębork), 57 bsap., 47 bł
-1 KP (Wałcz) - 20 DZ (Szczecinek), 12 DP (Szczecin), 14 DP (Wałcz), 159 PAC (Choszczno), 26 bsap., 38 bł
- 6 DAPrzeł. (Grudziądz), 16 DAPlot. (Koszalin), 2 BPDes. (Kamień Pomorski), 3 BPDes. (Kołobrzeg), 5 BPDes. (Gdańsk), 33 BAC (Chełmno), 22 BAPPanc., (Kwidzyń), 16 sPCz (Szczecin), 20 sPCz (Stargard Szczeciński), 76 PA (Toruń), 21 sPMoź. (Brodnica), 5 PS (Podjuchy), 3 ZPPont. (Włocławek), 7 PŁ (Bydgoszcz), 29 szkbapanc (Braniewo), 25 bmskład. (Włocławek), 2 bł (Świecie), 29 bopchem (Inowrocław)
Okręg Wojskowy Nr IV (Military District No.4, Wrocław)
- 2 KZ (Wrocław) - 10 DZ (Opole), 11 DZ (Żagań), 6 PCzC (Wrocław), 36 bsap., 52 bł
- 2 KP (Poznań) - 19 DZ (Gubin), 4 DP (Krosno Odrzańskie), 5 DP (Sulęcin), 112 PAC (Głogów), 55 bsap., 44 bł
- 27 DP (Zgorzelec), 11 DAPlot. (Brzeg), 14 BAC (Bolesławiec), 23 BAPPanc (Kalisz), 28 BAPPanc (Gniezno), 14 sPMoź. (Ostrów Wielkopolski), 13 sPCz (Opole), 22 sPCz (Żagań), 15 SzkPCz (Opole), 4 PS (Gorzów Wielkopolski), 1 ZPPont. (Brzeg), 10 PŁ (Wrocław), 4 bł (Wrocław), 29 bopchem. (Milicz)
Okręg Wojskowy Nr V (Military District No.5, Kraków)
- 11 KP (Gliwice) - 2 DP (Częstochowa), 7 DP (Gliwice), 29 DP (Bielsko), 120 PAC (Tarnowskie Góry), 70 bsap., 30 bł
- 12 KP (Rzeszów) - 6 DP (Kraków), 9 DP (Rzeszów), 30 DP (Przemyśl), 135 PAC (Sandomierz), ? bsap., ? bł.
- 18 sPCz (Nysa), 5 bł (Kraków)

Abbreviations:
-BAC - Brygada Artylerii Ciężkiej - Heavy Artillery Brigade
-BAPPanc - Brygada Artylerii Przeciwpancernej - Anti-armor Artillery Brigade
-bdm - batalion drogowo-mostowy - Road-Bridging Battalion
-bel-tech - batalion elektrotechniczny - Electrotechnical Battalion
-bł - batalion łączności - Signals Battalion
-bmo - batalion miotaczy ognia - Flamethrowers Battalion
-bmskład. - batalion mostów składanych - Folded Bridges Battalion
-bopchem - batalion obrony przeciwchemicznej - NBC Defense Battalion
-BPDes. - Brygada Przeciwdesantowa - Anti-assault Brigade
-brad. - batalion radiowy - Radio Battalion
-brpeleng. - batalion radiopelengacyjny - Radio-detection/ranging Battalion
-bsap. - batalion saperów - Engineering Battalion
-CBS - Ciężka Brygada Saperów - Heavy Engineers Brigade
-DAPlot. - Dywizja Artylerii Przeciwlotniczej - Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division - 4 anti-aircraft artillery regiments
-DAPrzeł. - Dywizja Artylerii Przełamania - Breakthrough (heavy) Artillery Division - 2 howitzer and 1 heavy guns brigades
-DP - Dywizja Piechoty - Infantry Division - 3 infantry and 1 light artillery regiments, 1 each anti-tank, anti-air, sappers and signals battalions
-DZ - Dywizja Zmechanizowana - Mechanized Division - 3 mechanized and 1 each tank, armored guns, howitzers, mortars regiments, 1 each rocket artillery, anti-aircraft, recon, engineers, signals, tank training battalions
-KP - Korpus Piechoty - Infantry Corps
-KZ - Korups Zmechanizowany - Mechanized Corps
-PA - Pułk Artylerii - Artillery Regiment
-PAC - Pułk Artylerii Ciężkiej - Heavy Artillery Regiment
-PAL - Pułk Artylerii Lekkiej - Light Artillery Regiment
-PCzC - Pułk Czołgów Cieżkich - Heavy Tanks Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-PP - Pułk Piechoty - Infantry Regiment
-PS - Pułk Saperów
-sPCz - średni Pułk Czołgów - Medium Tank Regiment
-sPMoź. - samodzielny Pułk Moździerzy - Autonomous Mortar Regiment
-szkbapanc. - szkolny batalion artylerii pancernej - Training Armored Artillery Battalion
-SzkPCz - Szkolny Pułk Czołgów - Training Tank Regiment
-ZPP - Zmotoryzowany Pułk Pontonowy - Motorized Pontoon Regiment
Note: Polish military language - for reasons unclear and contrary to general rules of Polish language - has long tradition of writing names of units/formations of regiment-size and more starting with capital letters, and names of smaller units/sub-units with non-capitals only

Wojska Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Obszaru Kraju
- 9 DA OPL (Warszawa) - 64 PA OPL (Warszawa), 86 PA OPL (Legionowo), 87 PA OPL (Warszawa), 94 PA OPL (Warszawa), 142 PRefl. (Skierniewice)
- 13 DA OPL (Bytom) - 85 PA OPL (Wełnowiec), 89 PA OPL (Chorzów), 90 PA OPL (Nowa Huta), 96 PA OPL (Zabrze), 97 PA OPL (Będzin)
- 15 DA OPL (Wrocław) - 3 PA OPL (Zgierz), 14 PA OPL (Poznań), 98 PA OPL (Wrocław), 99 PA OPL (Ząbkowice Śląskie)
- 115 PA OPL (Nisko), 129 PA OPL (Szczecin), 136 PA OPL (Mrzeżyno), 8 sPObs-Meld. (Bydgoszcz), 25 bobs-meld. (Bytom), 31 bobs-meld. (Poznań)

-DA OPL - Dywizja Artylerii Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Artillery Division of the Air Defence
-PA OPL - Pułk Artylerii Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Artillery Regiment of the Air Defence
-PRefl. - Pułk Reflektorów - Searchlight Regiment
-sPObs-Meld. - samodzielny Pułk Obserwacyjno-Meldunkowy - Autonomous Observation and Reporting Regiment
-bobs-meld. - batalion obserwacyjno-meldunkowy - Observation and Reporting Battalion

Wojska Lotnicze Note: training and liaison aircraft attached to combat regiments and in headquarters flight of corps' and divisions not included
3 Korpus Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego (3 Fighter Aviation Corps, Poznań)
- 6 DLM (Wrocław) - 3 PLM (Wrocław), 11 PLM (Poznań) - 28 Yak-9P, 5 Yak-9V
- 9 DLM (Malbork) - 29 PLM (Orneta), 41 PLM (Malbork) - 14 MiG-15, 4 UTIMiG-15, 26 Yak-23
- 11 DLM (Świdwin) - 26 PLM (Zegrze Pomorskie), 40 PLM (Świdwin) - 14 MiG-15, 9 UTIMiG-15, 28 Yak-9P
4 Korpus Lotnictwa Szturmowego (4 Attack Aviation Corps, Modlin)
- 8 DLSz (Warszawa) - 4 PLSz (Bydgoszcz), 5 PLSz (Warszawa), 46 PLSz (Modlin), 48 PLSz (Przasnysz) - 45 Il-2, 4 UIl-2, 61 Il-10, 7 UIl-10
- 16 DLSz (Piła) - 6 PLSz (Piła), 51 PLSz (Gdańsk-Wrzeszcz), 53 PLSz (Mirosławiec) - 47 Il-10, 5 UIl-10
air defence fighter aviation
- 5 DLM OPL (Warszawa) - 1 PLM OPL (Warszawa), 13 PLM OPL (Łęczyca), 31 PLM OPL (Warszawa) - 46 MiG-15, 6 UTIMiG-15
- 7 DLM OPL (Kraków) - 2 PLM OPL (Kraków), 39 PLM OPL (Mierzęcice) - 63 Yak-23, 2 UYak-17
- 10 DLM OPL (Słupsk) - 25 PLM OPL (Pruszcz Gdański), 28 PLM OPL (Słupsk) - 10 MiG-15, 1 UTIMiG-15, 14 Yak-23
other formations and autonomous units
- 15 DLB (Bydgoszcz) - 7 PLB (Bydgoszcz), 33 PLB (Malbork), 35 PLB (Inowrocław) - 16 Il-28, 2 UIl-28, 4 Tu-2 and UTB-2, 41 Pe-2, 5 UPe-2
- 21 PLZwiad. (Poznań, 12 Pe-2, 2 UPe-2), 36 SPL (Warszawa, 5 An-2, 7 C-47, 2 Il-12, 6 Li-2, 10 Po-2), 44 PLŁ (Warszawa, 27 Po-2), 1 ekoa (Inowrocław, 11 Il-2, 1 UIl-2), 12 ekoa (Wrocław, 11 Il-2, 1 UIl-2), 10 elł (Bydgoszcz, ? Po-2), 11 elł (Wrocław, ? Po-2), 14 elDWL (Warszawa, ? Po-2)
training units
- OSL-4 (Dęblin) - 1 C-47, 24 Il-2, 19 UIl-2, 18 Il-10, 16 UIl-10, 4 Li-2, 16 Pe-2, 11 UPe-2, 56 Po-2 (plus dedicated training aircraft)
- OSL-5 (Radom) - 8 Po-2, 11 Yak-9M, 25 Yak-9P, 33 Yak-9V
- TOSWL (Oleśnica)
ground support units
- 37 PŁ (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki), 10 BLTech. (Grudziądz), 11 BLTech. (Tomaszów Mazowiecki), 12 BLTech. (Poznań) and numerous other support and auxiliary units and sub-units.

-BLTech. - Brygada Lotniczo-Techniczna - Aviational-Technical Brigade
-DLB - Dywizja Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Division
-DLM - Dwizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Division
-DLM OPL - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Fighter Aviation Division of the Air Defence
-DLSz - Dywizja Lotnictwa Szturmowego - Attack Aviation Division
-ekoa - eskadra korygowania ognia artylerii - Artillery Fire Correction Squadron
-elDWL - eskadra lotnicza Dowództwa Wojsk Lotniczych - Aviation Squadron of the Air Forces Headquarters
-elł - eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego - Liaison Aviation Squadron
-OSL - Oficerska Szkoła Lotnicza - Officers' Aviation School
-PLB - Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Regiment
-PLŁ - Pułk Lotnictwa Łącznikowego - Liaison Aviation Regiment
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLM OPL - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Air Defence
-PLSz - Pułk Lotnictwa Szturmowego - Attack Aviation Regiment
-PLZwiad. - Pułk Lotnictwa Zwiadowczego - Scouting (Recon) Aviation Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-SPL - Specjalny Pułk Lotniczy - Special Air Regiment
-TOSWL - Techniczna Oficerska Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical Officers' School of Aviational Forces

Marynarka Wojenna
- Gdynia naval base - DD Błyskawica, DD Burza, DOP, DDoz, DS, FTrał.; 32 bł
- Hel naval base - bsap
- Świnoujście naval base - FSD
- coastal troops - 60 PAPlot (Gdynia), 3 bpm (Dziwnów), 9 bas (Ustka), 11 bas (Redłowo), 13 bas (Hel), 17 bas (Janogród), 19 bas (Kołobrzeg), 25 bas (Stogi)
- naval aviation - 34 PLM MW (Gdynia-Babie Doły, 13 Yak-9P, 1 Yak-9V), 30 PL MW (3 Tu-2, 5 Pe-2, 2 UPe-2, 8 Il-10, 1 UIl-10)

Abbreviations:
-DOP - Dywizjon Okrętów Podowdnych - Submarine Squadron
-DDoz. - Dywizjon Dozorowców - Guardship Squadron
-DS - Dywizjon Ścigaczy - Chasers Squadron
-FTrał. - Flotylla Trałowców - Minesweepers Flotilla
-FSD - Flotylla Środków Desantowych - Landing Ship Flotilla
-PAPlot - Pułk Artylerii Przeciwlotniczej - Anti-aircraft Artillery Regiment
-PLM MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Marynarki Wojennej - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PL MW - Pułk Lotniczy Marynarki Wojennej - Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-bas - bateria artylerii stałej - Static Artillery Battery
-bł - batalion łączności - Signals Battalion
-bpm - batalion piechoty morskiej - Naval Infantry Battalion
-bs - batalion saperów - Engineers Battalion

Despite the "corrections" of the plan, overall miltary spending was still an extremely heavy burden on the economy, therefore thanks to slightly easing tensions after the end of Korean War it was decided to make further reductions, drop plans to form certain new units and even disband some already created but most understrength and underequipped formations, while at the same time properly equip and man the existing units. As a result, in 1954 Polish land forces were at it's numerical peak in regards to large formations: 3 military districts (Warszawski Okręg Wojskowy - HQ Warszawa, Pomorski Okręg Wojskowy - HQ Bydgoszcz, Śląski Okręg Wojskowy - Wrocław), 8 corps (2 mechanized, 6 infantry), 6 mechanized, 16 infantry, 2 heavy artillery and 2 anti-aircraft divisions (of the ground forces), 3 anti-assault, 2 heavy artillery and 3 anti-armor artillery brigades, and at the beginning of 1955 armed forces as a whole reached it's top personnel level until 1970s-1980s with 385.700 men under arms.

Significant changes affected also WLot. and WOPOK. It was decided that majority of divisions will have just two regiments (not three as planned), formation of 13 DLSz, 5 fighter and 2 attack regiments was dropped and 4 KLSz HQ was disbanded. Most significantly, in October 1954 WLot. and WOPOK were merged, creating Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Obszaru Kraju (WLiOPOK, Forces of Aviation and Anti-Aircraft Defence of the National Area), with gen.arms Iwan Turkiel in command. In 1955 Poland joined Warsaw Pact.

Structure of the reorganized service in early 1955 was as follows (number of personnel: 72.827):
air defence artillery and radiotechnical units
- 9 DA OPL (Warszawa) - 64 PA OPL (Warszawa), 86 PA OPL (Legionowo), 87 PA OPL (Warszawa), 94 PA OPL (Warszawa)
- 13 DA OPL (Bytom) - 85 PA OPL (Wełnowiec), 89 PA OPL (Chorzów), 96 PA OPL (Zabrze), 97 PA OPL (Będzin)
- 15 DA OPL (Wrocław) - 3 PA OPL (Zgierz), 14 PA OPL (Poznań), 98 PA OPL (Wrocław), 99 PA OPL (Ząbkowice Śląskie)
- 90 sPA OPL (Nowa Huta), 115 sPA OPL (Nisko), 129 sPA OPL (Szczecin), 136 sPA OPL (Mrzeżyno)
- 8 sPObs-Meld. (Słupsk), 14 sPObs-Meld. (Kraków), 16 sPObs-Meld. (Poznań), 22 sPObs-Meld. (Wrocław), 142 PRefl. (Skierniewice), 6 sbrt (Warszawa)
3 Korpus Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego (3 Fighter Aviation Corps, Poznań)
- 6 DLM (Wrocław) - 3 PLM (Wrocław), 62 PSzkTrLM (Poznań)
- 9 DLM (Malbork) - 29 PLM (Orneta), 41 PLM (Malbork)
- 11 DLM (Świdwin) - 26 PLM (Zegrze Pomorskie), 40 PLM (Świdwin)
air defence fighter aviation
- 5 DLM OPL (Warszawa) - 1 PLM OPL (Warszawa), 13 PLM OPL (Łęczyca), 31 PLM OPL (Warszawa)
- 7 DLM OPL (Kraków) - 2 PLM OPL (Kraków), 39 PLM OPL (Mierzęcice)
- 10 DLM OPL (Słupsk) - 11 PLM OPL (Debrzno), 25 PLM OPL (Pruszcz Gdański), 28 PLM OPL (Słupsk)
other formations and autonomous units
- 15 DLB (Bydgoszcz) - 7 PLB (Bydgoszcz), 33 PLB (Modlin), 35 PLB (Modlin)
- 8 DLSz (Bydgoszcz) - 4 PLSz (Bydgoszcz), 5 PLSz (Bydgoszcz), 48 PLSz (Inowrocław)
- 16 DLSz (Piła) - 6 PLSz (Piła), 51 PLSz (Poznań), 53 PLSz (Mirosławiec)
- 21 PLZ (Sochaczew), 36 SPL (Warszawa), 1 slekoa (Inowrocław), 12 slekoa (Oleśnica), 10 selł (Bydgoszcz), 11 selł (Wrocław), 13 selł (Modlin),14 elDWLiOPOK (Warszawa), 19 ehol. (Świdwin), 27 els (Warszawa)
training units
- OSL-4 (Dęblin), OSL-5 (Radom), TSWL (Oleśnica), OSR (Beniaminów), SMSL-10, SMSL-11, SMSL-13
ground support units
- 37 PŁ (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki), 10 BLTech. (Grudziądz), 11 BLTech. (Tomaszów Mazowiecki), 12 BLTech. (Poznań) and numerous other support and auxiliary units and sub-units.
naval aviation
- 33 DL MW (Gdynia - 30 PL MW, 34 PLM MW, 15 elr MW, 16 elł MW)

Abbreviations:
-BLTech. - Brygada Lotniczo-Techniczna - Aviational-Technical Brigade
-DA OPL - Dywizja Artylerii Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Artillery Division of the Air Defence
-DLB - Dywizja Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Division
-DL MW - Dywizja Lotnicza Marynarki Wojennej - Naval Aviation Division
-DLM - Dwizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Division
-DLM OPL - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Fighter Aviation Division of the Air Defence
-DLSz - Dywizja Lotnictwa Szturmowego - Attack Aviation Division
-ehol. - eskadra holownicza - (Target) Towing Squadron
-elDWLiOPOK - eskadra lotnicza Dowództwo Wojsk Lotniczych i Obrony Powietrznej Obszaru Kraju - Aviation Squadron of the Headquarters of the FA&AADNA
-elł MW - eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego Marynarki Wojennej - Liaison Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-elr MW - eskadra lotnictwa rozpoznawczego Marynarki Wojennej - Recon Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-els - eskadra lotnictwa sanitarnego - Medical Evacuation Aviation Squadron
-KLM - Korpus Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Corps
-OSL - Oficerska Szkoła Lotnicza - Officers' Aviation School
-OSR - Oficerska Szkoła Radiotechniczna - Officers' Radiotechnical School
-PA OPL - Pułk Artylerii Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Artillery Regiment of the Air Defence
-PLB - Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Regiment
-PL MW - Pułk Lotniczy Marynarki Wojennej - Naval Aviation Regiment
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLM MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Marynarki Wojennej - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PLM OPL - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Air Defence
-PLSz - Pułk Lotnictwa Szturmowego - Attack Aviation Regiment
-PLZwiad. - Pułk Lotnictwa Zwiadowczego - Scouting (Recon) Aviation Regiment
-PSzkTrLM - Pułk Szkolno-Treningowy Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Training Regiment of the Fighter Aviation
-selkoa - samodzielna eskadra lotnicza korygowania ognia artylerii - Autonomous Artillery Fire Correction Aviation Squadron
-selł - samodzielna eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego - Autonomous Liaison Aviation Squadron
-sbrt - samodzielny batalion radiotechniczny - Autonomous Radiotechnical Battalion
-SMSL - Szkoła Młodszych Specjalistów Lotnictwa (School of Junior Aviational Specialists)
-sPA OPL - samodzielny Pułk Artylerii Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Autonomous Artillery Regiment of the Air Defence
-SPL - Specjalny Pułk Lotniczy - Special Air Regiment
-sPObs-Meld. - samodzielny Pułk Obserwacyjno-Meldunkowy - Autonomous Observation and Reporting Regiment
-sPRefl. - samodzielny Pułk Reflektorów - Autonomus Searchlight Regiment
-TSWL - Techniczna Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces

In the end of 1955 WLot. were equipped with 2012 aircraft: 759 fighters (66 Yak-23, 680 MiG-15/Lim-1/Lim-2, 13 MiG-17/Lim-5), 340 attack (Il-10), 69 bombers (Il-28), 209 combat trainers (118 UTIMiG-15/SBLim-1, 76 UIl-10, 1 UTu-2, 14 UIl-28), 315 trainers (128 Junak, 137 Yak-11, 50 Yak-18), 282 liaison (279 Po-2/CSS-13, 3 Yak-12), 38 transports (13 An-2, 4 C-47, 2 Il-12, 2 Il-14, 17 Li-2).

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Last edited by eswube on October 11th, 2016, 9:29 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Post subject: Re: Polish WingsPosted: October 7th, 2016, 10:22 pm
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Reorganizations (1956-1968)
Khrushchev's "secret" speech on the XX Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (so "secret" that official printing press made immediately 1 million copies of it and send them throughout the whole Soviet bloc) denouncing Stalin and period of his rule opened way to increasingly public expressions of negative attitudes towards Soviet-imposed authorities of the Eastern Bloc countries by their populations. In Poland, these sentiments led to June 1956 Poznań protests and eventually (during the autumn) to ousting of the stalinist leadership replaced by more moderate and (relatively) liberal one headed by Władysław Gomułka. In the Polish armed forces Khrushchev's revelations exposed (previously concealed) disapproval of the - especially younger - cadres towards the presence on practically all higher positions of the Soviet officers (in Polish uniforms) - which were derisively called "popi" (sing. "pop") which was a wordplay on Polish term for christian orthodox priest, but taken as acronym for "Pełniący Obowiązki Polaka" - "acting in duties of a Pole". In the middle of the year Turkiel complained to Rokossowski that Polish officers more and more openly express the silent disapproval towards their Soviet superiors and his Polish deputy, brig.gen. Jan Frey-Bielecki publicly remarked that "Polish army should be led not by 'acting' but real Poles". October 1956 removal of stalinist hard-liners, done without approval from Kremlin, created initially high tension between Warszawa and Mosow, diffused only after Gomułka convinced Khrushchev that Poland under his leadership is not going to attempt leaving (like Hungary) the Soviet bloc. In the meantime, however, the threat of Soviet intervention similar to one in Hungary seemed extremely serious and gen. Frey-Bielecki ordered continous surveillance of Soviet military units in Poland and preparations of their bombardment in case they would leave their garrisons in force.

As a result of the Polish October, nearly all Soviet officers left the Polish armed forces (only several were left, and ones with genuine Polish ancestry), including gen. Turkiel, now replaced with Frey-Bielecki. Once appointed, new commander embarked on ambitious plan of qualitative improvement of his service, working towards improving training programs (like introduction of operations from highway strips modeled after Swedish experiences) and organization, initiating discussions on doctrinal issues, reorganizing aviation health service, expansion of domestic aircraft designing capabilities. He also re-admitted to the air force many former officers of the Polish Armed Forces in Exile who were purged (and very often imprisoned under false charges) during stalinism and raised public profile of the air force through spectacular fly-pasts of the large formations of the combat aircraft during various events, like September 1957 air show in which 500 aircraft participated, including flypast of 50 Il-28's followed a minute later by 300 (three hundred) Lim-2 fighters in 4 groups of 75 ( http://olesnica.vot.pl/pokazy/1957.html ); or military parade during 22 July 1959 holiday when 64 Lim's flew in tafla (tile) formation with near-zero separation ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-UyPsxhbcw ), all major feats at that time.

In regards to organizational matters, in 1957 within WLOPOK the 3 Korpus Lotnictwa Mieszanego (3 Composite Air Corps) grouping tactical fighters, attack and bomber aircraft was replaced with Dowództwo Lotnictwa Operacyjnego (DLO, Operational Air Command) led by brig.gen. Jan Raczkowski. Air defenses were also reorganized with creation of three regional formations - 1 Korpus Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Obszaru Kraju (1 KOPl OK - 1 Anti-Aircraft Defence Corps of National Territory) at Warszawa, 2 KOPl OK in Bydgoszcz and 3 KOPl OK in Wrocław. This was followed by creation of Dowództwo Wojsk Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Obszaru Kraju (DWOPl OK, Anti-Aircraft Defence Forces Command of the National Territory) as a major command within WLOPOK, led by brig.gen. Czesław Mankiewicz. Late 1950s were also period of introduction of certain new technologies to the force - supersonic MiG-19 fighters, helicopters (Mi-1 and Mi-4) as well as introduction of guided surface-to-air missiles (first group of personnel begun training in Soviet Union in 1959).

In the 1955-1960 period Polish armed forces, enjoying period of improving international relations suffered huge reductions, with personnel strength being nearly halved to around 200.000 (although soon it begun to rise again), with largest contraction in the land forces which went from 26 divisions (6 mechanized, 16 infantry, 2 heavy artillery and 2 anti-aircraft divisions) to 17 divisions (4 armored, 6 mechanized, 3 infantry, 1 airborne, 1 heavy artillery and 2 anti-aircraft artillery), generally with lower manning-levels.

Around 1960 order of battle of the WLOPK was as follows (without ground support units):
Dowództwo Wojsk Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Obszaru Kraju
- 1 KOPl OK (Warszawa) - 1 PLM OPl (Mińsk Mazowiecki), 2 PLM OPl (Kraków), 13 PLM OPl (Łęczyca), 39 PLM OPl (Mierzęcice), 42 elł (Warszawa)
______- 9 DA OPl (Warszawa - 64 PA OPl, 86 PA OPl, 87 PA OPl, 94 PA OPl), 13 DA OPl (Bytom - 85 PA OPl, 89 PA OPl, 96 PA OPl, 97 PA OPl), 3 PA OPl (Zgierz), 90 PA OPl (Nowa Huta), 115 PA OPl (Nisko), 3 brt (Sandomierz), 6 brt (Warszawa), 7 brt (Lublinek near Łódź), 14 brt (Kraków)
- 2 KOPl OK (Bydgoszcz) - 11 PLM OPl (Debrzno), 25 PLM OPl (Pruszcz Gdański), 28 PLM OPl (Słupsk), 19 leh (Słupsk), 43 elł (Bydgoszcz)
______- 129 PA OPl (Szczecin), 136 PA OPl (Bydgoszcz), 2 brt (Grudziądz), 8 brt (Słupsk), 9 brt (Choszczno)
- 3 KOPl OK (Wrocław) - 3 PLM OPl (Wrocław), 45 PLM OPl (Babimost), 62 PLM OPl (Poznań), 44 elł (Wrocław)
______- 14 PA OPl (Wrocław), 98 PA OPl (Poznań), 18 brt (Poznań), 22 brt (Wrocław)
Dowództwo Lotnictwa Operacyjnego
- 9 DLM (Malbork) - 29 PLM (Orneta), 41 PLM (Malbork)
- 11 DLM (Świdwin) - 26 PLM (Zegrze Pomorskie), 40 PLM (Świdwin)
- 8 DLMSz (Bydgoszcz) - 4 PLMSz (Goleniów), 5 PLMSz (Bydgoszcz), 48 PLMSz (Inowrocław)
- 16 DLMSz (Piła) - 6 PLMSz (Piła), 51 PLMSz (Piła), 53 PLMSz (Mirosławiec)
- 15 DLB (Modlin) - 7 BLB (Powidz), 33 PLB (Modlin)
- 21 SPLR (Sochaczew), 37 PŁ (Śrem), 10 selł (Bydgoszcz), 11 selł (Wrocław), 17 elDLO (Poznań), 20 ela (Inowrocław)
direct reporting units
- 36 SPL (Warszawa), 26 selł (Warszawa), 27 els (Warszawa)
training units
- OSL-4 (Dęblin) - 52 LPSzk (Radzyń Podlaski), 59 LPSzk (Biała Podlaska), 64 LPSzk (Przasnysz), 23 eszk (Dęblin)
- OSL-5 (Radom) - 31 LPSzkB (Łask), 58 LPSzkB (Dęblin), 60 LPSzkB (Radom), 61 LPSzkB (Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą)
- CSL (Modlin), OSR (Jelenia Góra), TOSWL (Oleśnica), TSWL (Zamość), OSSA (Gołdap), 6 OSSŁ (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki), 9 OSSŁ (Mrągowo)
naval aviation (part of the Navy)
- DLiOPL MW (Gdynia) - 30 PLMSz MW (Siemirowice), 34 PLM MW (Gdynia), 15 ser MW (Siemirowice), 18 el MW (Gdynia)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BLB - Brygada Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Brigade (oversized regiment)
-brt - batalion radiotechniczny - Radiotechnical (radar) battalion
-CSL - Centrum Szkolenia Lotniczego - Aviational Training Centre
-DA OPl - Dywizja Artylerii Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Artillery Division of the Air Defence
-DLB - Dywizja Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Division
-DLiOPL MW - Dowództwo Lotnictwa i Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Marynarki Wojennej - Naval Aviation and Anti-Aircraft Defence Command
-DLM - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Division
-DLMSz - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego - Fighter-Attack Aviation Division
-el - eskadra lotnicza - Aviational Squadron
-ela - eskadra lotnictwa artyleryjskiego - Artillery Aviation Squadron
-elDLO - eskadra lotnicza Dowództwa Lotnictwa Operacyjnego - Aviation Squadron of the Operational Air Command
-els - eskadra lotnictwa sanitarnego - Medical Evacuation Aviation Squadron
-eszk - eskadra szkolna - Training Squadron
-KOPl OK - Korpus Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Obszaru Kraju - Anti-Aircraft Defence Corps of National Territory
-leh - lotnicza eskadra holownicza - Aviational (target) Towing Squadron
-LPSzk - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolny - Aviational Training Regiment
-LPSzkB - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolno-Bojowy - Aviational Combat Training Regiment
-eml MW - eskadra mieszana lotnictwa Marynarki Wojennej - Composite Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-OSL - Oficerska Szkoła Lotnicza - Officers' Aviation School
-OSR - Oficerska Szkoła Radiotechniczna - Officers' Radiotechnical School
-OSSA - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Artylerii - Artillery Specialist' Training Centre (S-75 missiles training)
-OSSŁ - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Łączności - Signals Specialists' Training Centre
-PA OPl - Pułk Artylerii Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Artillery Regiment of the Air Defence
-PLB - Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Regiment
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLM MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Marynarki Wojennej - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PLM OPL - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Air Defence
-PLMSz - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego - Fighter-Attack Aviation Regiment
-PLMSz MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego Marynarki Wojennej - Fighter-Attack Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PLRO - Pułk Lotnictwa Rozpoznania Operacyjnego - Operational Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-selł - samodzielna eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego - Autonomous Liaison Aviation Squadron
-ser MW - samodzielna eskadra rozpoznawcza Marynarki Wojennej - Autonomous Reconnaissance Squadron of the Navy
-SPL - Specjalny Pułk Lotniczy - Special Aviation Regiment
-SPLR - Samodzielny Pułk Lotnictwa Rozpoznawczego - Autonomous Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-TOSWL - Techniczna Oficerska Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces
-TSWL - Techniczna Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces[/spoiler]

WLOPOK (not counting naval aviation) were equipped with 2008 aircraft: 935 fighters (557 MiG-15/Lim-1/Lim-2, 345 MiG-17/Lim-5, 33 MiG-19), 60 attack aircraft (Lim-6bis), 78 bombers (Il-28), 318 combat trainers (302 UTIMiG-15/SBLim-1, 16 UIl-28), 350 trainers (234 TS-8 Bies, 116 Yak-11), 179 liaison (112 Po-2/CSS-13, 67 Yak-12), 44 transport (8 An-2, 2 Il-12, 17 Il-14, 17 Li-2), 44 helicopters (42 Mi-1/SM-1, 2 SM-2)

During the early 1960s main technological advancement of the WLOPOK was the introduction of the surface-to-air missiles and replacing with them all the conventional AAA , with all units either being reequipped - with corresponding alteration of their organizational structure (and often renamed) - or disbanded. Second most important change was introduction (from 1962) a Mach-2-capable MiG-21 fighters.

1962 saw next major reorganization of the air forces, effectively splitting them into two separate services (tactical aviation and air defence) but at the same time keeping a peculiar third element with partial supervisory role over them. New organization established post of Główny Inspektor Lotnictwa (GIL, Chief Inspector of Aviation, post occupied by div.gen. Jan Frey-Bielecki) that was responsible for planning of overall development of aviational forces, training, preparation of cadres and for materiel and logistics affairs. Dowództwo Lotnictwa Operacyjnego (brig.gen. Jan Raczkowski) and Dowództwo Wojsk Obrony Powietrznej Kraju (DWOPK, National Air Defence Forces Command, div.gen. Czesław Mankiewicz) become in operational terms virtually independent servies. Year later, in 1963, due to being far too independent (at one point seriously demanding purchase of SAAB J-35 Drakens) div.gen. Jan Frey-Bielecki was removed from his post and replaced by div.gen. Jan Raczkowski (who was, in turn replaced by brig.gen. Franciszek Kamiński as head of DLO).

In late 1963 order of battle of Polish air forces was as follows:
Główny Inspektorat Lotnictwa
- OSL-4 (Dęblin) - 59 LPSzk (Biała Podlaska), 64 LPSzk (Przasnysz), 23 eszk (Dęblin)
- OSL-5 (Radom) - 58 LPSzkB (Dęblin), 60 LPSzkB (Radom), 61 LPSzkB (Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą), 66 LPSzk (Tomaszów Mazowiecki)
- CSL (Modlin), OSR (Jelenia Góra), TOSWL (Oleśnica), TSWL (Zamość), CSSAiR (Bemowo Piskie), 6 OSSŁ (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki), 9 OSSŁ (Mrągowo), OSSUL (Grudziądz)
Dowództwo Lotnictwa Operacyjnego
- 9 DLM (Malbork) - 29 PLM (Orneta), 41 PLM (Malbork)
- 11 DLM (Świdwin) - 4 PLM (Goleniów), 40 PLM (Świdwin)
- 16 DLMSz (Piła) - 5 PLMSz (Bydgoszcz), 6 PLMSz (Piła), 51 PLMSz (Piła), 53 PLMSz (Mirosławiec)
- 15 DLB (Modlin) - 7 BLB (Powidz), 33 PLRO (Modlin)
- 21 PLRT (Sochaczew), 32 PLRA (Sochaczew), 36 SPL (Warszawa), 37 PŁ (Śrem), 47 PLŁS (Modlin), 55 PLT (Kraków), 56 PŚ (Inowrocław), 10 selł (Bydgoszcz), 11 selł (Wrocław), 17 elDLO (Poznań), 26 selł (Warszawa)
Dowództwo Wojsk Obrony Powietrznej Kraju
- 1 KOPK (Warszawa) - 1 PLM OPK (Mińsk Mazowiecki), 2 PLM OPK (Łask), 13 PLM OPK (Łęczyca), 42 elł (Warszawa)
______- 9 DA OPK (Warszawa - 64 PA OPK, 2 do, 3 do, 4 do, 5 do, 6 do, 7 do, 8 do, 9 do), 3 sbrt (Sandomierz), 6 sbrt (Warszawa), 7 sbrt (Łódź), 14 sbrt (Chorzów)
- 2 KOPK (Bydgoszcz) - 11 PLM OPK (Debrzno), 25 PLM OPK (Pruszcz Gdański), 26 PLM OPK (Zegrze Pomorskie), 28 PLM OPK (Słupsk), 34 PLM OPK (Gdynia), 19 leh (Słupsk), 43 elł (Bydgoszcz)
______- 60 BA OPK (Gdynia - 21 do, 22 do, 23 do, 24 do, 25 do), 129 PA OPK (Szczecin), 2 sbrt (Grudziądz), 8 sbrt (Słupsk), 9 sbrt (Choszczno)
- 3 KOPK (Wrocław) - 3 PLM OPK (Wrocław), 39 PLM OPK (Mierzęcice), 45 PLM OPK (Babimost), 62 PLM OPK (Poznań), 44 elł (Wrocław)
______- 13 DA OPK (Bytom - 11 do, 12 do, 13 do, 14 do, 15 do, 16 do, 17 do, 18 do), 14 SPA OPK (Poznań - during training - 28 do, 29 do, 30 do, 31 do), 16 sbrt (Poznań), 22 sbrt (Wrocław)
naval aviation
- DLiOPl MW (Gdynia) - 30 PLMSz MW (Siemirowice), 15 selr MW (Siemirowice), 18 eml MW (Gdynia), 28 er MW (Darłowo)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BA OPK - Brygada Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Artillery Brigade of the National Air Defence
-BLB - Brygada Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Brigade (oversized regiment)
-CSL - Centrum Szkolenia Lotniczego - Aviational Training Centre
-CSSAiR - Centrum Szkolenia Specjalistów Artylerii i Radiolokacji - Artillery and Radiolocation Specialists' Training Centre (S-75 missile training centre)
-DA OPK - Dywizja Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Artillery Division of the National Air Defence
-DLB - Dywizja Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Division
-DLiOPL MW - Dowództwo Lotnictwa i Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Marynarki Wojennej - Naval Aviation and Anti-Aircraft Defence Command
-DLM - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Division
-DLMSz - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego - Fighter-Attack Aviation Division
-do - dywizjon ogniowy - Firing Battalion (S-75 unit)
-el - eskadra lotnicza - Aviation Squadron
-elDLO - eskadra lotnicza Dowództwa Lotnictwa Operacyjnego - Aviation Squadron of the Operational Air Command
-eml MW - eskadra mieszana lotnictwa Marynarki Wojennej - Composite Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-er MW - eskadra ratownicza Marynarki Wojennej - SAR Squadron of the Navy
-eszk - eskadra szkolna - Training Squadron
-KOPK - Korpus Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - National Air Defence Corps
-leh - lotnicza eskadra holownicza - Aviational (target) Towing Squadron
-LPSzk - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolny - Aviational Training Regiment
-LPSzkB - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolno-Bojowy - Aviational Combat Training Regiment
-OSL - Oficerska Szkoła Lotnicza - Officers' Aviation School
-OSR - Oficerska Szkoła Radiotechniczna - Officers' Radiotechnical School
-OSSŁ - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Łączności - Signals Specialists' Training Centre
-OSSUL - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Ubezpieczania Lotów - Flight Safety Specialists' Training Centre
-PA OPK - Pułk Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Artillery Regiment of the National Air Defence (gun artillery)
-PLB - Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowego - Bomber Aviation Regiment
-PLŁS - Pułk Lotnictwa Łącznikowo-Sanitarnego - Liaison and Medical Evacuation Aviation Regiment
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLM OPK - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the National Air Defence
-PLMSz - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego - Fighter-Attack Aviation Regiment
-PLMSz MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego Marynarki Wojennej - Fighter-Attack Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PLRA - Pułk Lotnictwa Rozpoznania Artyleryjskiego - Artillery Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PLRO - Pułk Lotnictwa Rozpoznania Operacyjnego - Operational Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PLRT - Pułk Lotnictwa Rozpoznania Taktycznego - Tactical Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PLT - Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Transport Aviation Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-PŚ - Pułk Śmigłowców - Helicopter Regiment
-sbrt - samodzielny batalion radiotechniczny - Autonomous Radiotechnical(radar) battalion
-selł - samodzielna eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego - Autonomous Liaison Aviation Squadron
-selr MW - samodzielna eskadra lotnictwa rozpoznawczego Marynarki Wojennej - Autonomous Reconnaissance Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-SPA OPK - Samodzielny Pułk Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Autonomous Artillery Regiment of the National Air Defence
-SPL - Specjalny Pułk Lotniczy - Special Aviation Regiment
-TOSWL - Techniczna Oficerska Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces
-TSWL - Techniczna Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces[/spoiler]

Mid-1960s were a period of certain minor adjustments to the established structure, as well as of the more widespread introduction of the new types of equipment like MiG-21 or Su-7. It also marked (in 1966) introduction of the automated air defence command system Vozdukh-1p of Soviet manufacture (although due to slow purchase of the components, for a time being it allowed guidance of just 24 aircraft at a time, with capacity to guide 90 more with traditional non-automated means - both numbers way below operational demands). 1966 was also a year of the 1000th Anniversary of Polish Statehood (specifically baptism of Mieszko I), jubilantly celebrated both by state and church authorities (albeit separately in very competing manner). Military parade on the 22 July 1966 was also marked by large presence of aircraft, including "eagle" formation of 33 Il-28's and "1000" formation of 42 Lim's ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_eGNLf3KUUQ and https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQ9Jx7y9QBY ).

In 1966 Polish air forces (excluding navy?) were equipped with 1886 aircraft: 1087 combat aircraft (419 MiG-15/Lim-1/Lim-2/SBLim-1A/-2A, 451 MiG-17/Lim-5/Lim-6, 30 MiG-19, 115 MiG-21F/PFM, 6 Su-7, 66 Il-28), 261 combat trainers (240 UTIMiG-15/SBLim-1/SBLim-2, 6 MiG-21U/US, 15 UIl-28), 232 trainers (179 TS-8, 44 TS-11, 9 Yak-11), 144 transport and liaison aircraft (42 An-2, 2 Il-12, 16 Il-14, 2 Il-18, 13 Li-2, 69 Yak-12), 162 helicopters (141 Mi-1/SM-1/SM-2, 21 Mi-4).

Year 1967 saw renaming of a number of units (including number of school, in whole-army-wide reorganization), but that was just a prelude to major reorganization that happened year later. In 1968 GIL was abolished and merged with DLO, with materiel-related activities transferred to newly established Szefostwo Techniki Lotniczej (STL, Aviation Materiel Command), whose head was in turn deputy head of Główny Inspektor Techniki Wojska Polskiego (Main Inspector of Materiel of the Polish Army). DLO was renamed Wojska Lotnicze (WLot., Aviational Forces), led by div.gen. Jan Raczkowski, and DWOPK into Wojska Obrony Powietrznej Kraju (National Air Defence Forces) led by div.gen. Roman Paszkowski.

Stabilization (1968-1989)

In 1969 order of battle of Polish air forces was as follows:
Wojska Lotnicze
- 3 DLM (Świdwin) - 2 PLM (Goleniów), 40 PLM (Świdwin)
- 4 DLM (Malbork) - 9 PLM (Debrzno), 41 PLM (Malbork)
- 2 DLMSz (Piła) - 3 PLMB (Bydgoszcz), 6 PLMSz (Piła), 8 PLMSz (Mirosławiec), 45 PLMSz (Babimost)
- 7 BLRB (Powidz), 6 PŁ (Śrem), 13 PLT (Kraków), 21 PLRTiA (Powidz), 32 PLRTiA (Sochaczew), 36 SPL (Warszawa), 47 PLŁS (Modlin), 17 elDLO (Poznań), 26 elł (Warszawa)
- 49 PŚ (Pruszcz Gdański), 56 PŚ (Inowrocław), 31 eśra (Inowrocław), 37 eśt (Inowrocław)
- WOSL (Dęblin) - 58 LPSzkB (Dęblin), 60 LPSzk (Radom), 61 LPSzkB (Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą), 66 LPSz (Tomaszów Mazowiecki), 23 leszk (Dęblin)
- TOSWL (Oleśnica), TSWL (Zamość), CSL (Modlin), 6 OSSŁ (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki), 9 OSSŁ (Mrągowo), OSSUL (Grudziądz)
Wojska Obrony Powietrznej Kraju
- 1 KOPK (Warszawa) - 1 PLM OPK (Mińsk Mazowiecki), 10 PLM OPK (Łask), 13 PLM OPK (Łęczyca), 42 elł (Warszawa)
______- 3 DA OPK (Warszawa - 4 SA-75 and 4 S-75M battalions), 3 sbrt (Sandomierz), 6 sbrt (Warszawa), 7 sbrt (Łódź)
- 2 KOPK (Bydgoszcz) - 26 PLM OPK (Zegrze Pomorskie), 28 PLM OPK (Słupsk), 34 PLM OPK (Gdynia), 19 leh (Słupsk), 43 elł (Bydgoszcz)
______- 4 BA OPK (Gdynia - 5 S-75M battalions), 26 BA OPK (Szczecin - 4 S-75M battalions), 12 PRt (Gdynia), 9 sbrt (Choszczno)
- 3 KOPK (Wrocław) - 11 PLM OPK (Wrocław), 39 PLM OPK (Mierzęcice), 62 PLM OPK (Poznań), 44 elł (Wrocław)
______- 1 DA OPK (Bytom - 8 SA-75 battalions), 79 SPA OPK (Poznań - 4 SA-75 battalions), 19 PRt (Chorzów), 18 sbrt (Poznań)
- WOSR (Jelenia Góra), CSSAiR (Bemowo Piskie)
naval aviation
- DLiOPL MW (Gdynia) - 7 PLSz MW (Siemirowice), 15 elr MW (Siemirowice), 18 elł MW (Gdynia), 28 er MW (Darłowo)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BA OPK - Brygada Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Artillery Brigade of the National Air Defence
-BLRB - Brygada Lotnictwa Rozpoznawczo-Bombowego - Reconnaissance-Bomber Aviation Brigade (2 recon, 1 EWR, 1 bomber squadron)
-CSL - Centrum Szkolenia Lotniczego - Aviational Training Centre
-CSSAiR - Centrum Szkolenia Specjalistów Artylerii i Radiolokacji - Artillery and Radiolocation Specialists' Training Centre
-DA OPK - Dywizja Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Artillery Division of the National Air Defence
-DLiOPL MW - Dowództwo Lotnictwa i Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Marynarki Wojennej - Naval Aviation and Anti-Aircraft Defence Command
-DLM - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Division
-DLMSz - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego - Fighter-Attack Aviation Division
-el - eskadra lotnicza - Aviation Squadron
-elDLO - eskadra lotnicza Dowództwa Lotnictwa Operacyjnego - Aviation Squadron of the Operational Air Command
-elł - eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego - Liaison Aviation Squadron
-elł MW - eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego Marynarki Wojennej - Liaison Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-elr MW - samodzielna eskadra lotnictwa rozpoznawczego Marynarki Wojennej - Reconnaissance Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-er MW - eskadra ratownicza Marynarki Wojennej - SAR Squadron of the Navy
-eśra - eskadra śmigłowców rozpoznania artyleryjskiego - Artilery Reconnaissance Helicopter Squadron
-eśt - eskadra śmigłowców transportowych - Transport Helicopter Squadron
-KOPK - Korpus Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - National Air Defence Corps
-leh - lotnicza eskadra holownicza - Aviational (target) Towing Squadron
-leszk - lotnicza eskadra szkolna - Aviational Training Squadron
-LPSzk - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolny - Aviational Training Regiment
-LPSzkB - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolno-Bojowy - Aviational Combat Training Regiment
-OSSŁ - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Łączności - Signals Specialists' Training Centre
-OSSUL - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Ubezpieczania Lotów - Flight Safety Specialists' Training Centre
-PLŁS - Pułk Lotnictwa Łącznikowo-Sanitarnego - Liaison and Medical Evacuation Aviation Regiment
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLM OPK - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the National Air Defence
-PLMB - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Bombowego - Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment
-PLMSz - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego - Fighter-Attack Aviation Regiment
-PLMSz MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego Marynarki Wojennej - Fighter-Attack Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PLRTiA - Pułk Lotnictwa Rozpoznania Taktycznego i Artyleryjskiego - Tactical and Artillery Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PLT - Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Transport Aviation Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-PRt - Pułk Radiotechniczny - Radiotechnical (radar) Regiment
-PŚ - Pułk Śmigłowców - Helicopter Regiment
-sbrt - samodzielny batalion radiotechniczny - Autonomous Radiotechnical(radar) battalion
-SPA OPK - Samodzielny Pułk Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Autonomus Artillery Regiment of the National Air Defece
-SPL - Specjalny Pułk Lotniczy - Special Aviation Regiment
-TOSWL - Techniczna Oficerska Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces
-TSWL - Techniczna Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces
-WOSL - Wyższa Oficerska Szkoła Lotnicza - Officers' Higher Aviational School
-WOSR - Wyższa Oficerska Szkoła Radiotechniczna - Officers' Higher Radiotechnical School[/spoiler]

Basic structure of WLot. and WOPK remained in principle constant for the next two decades. In 1970 WOPK begun introducing S-125 SAM's, while troughout the decade aviation got enriched with variable-geometry combat aircraft (Su-20 in 1974 and MiG-23 in 1979) and dedicated attack helicopters (Mi-24 in 1979). Early 1980s saw introduction of Su-22 (which, so far, happened to be the last purchase of over 100 combat aircraft of single type for Polish military aviation), mid-1980s saw introduction of long-range S-200 SAM's and at the end of the decade first MiG-29's begun to arrive. In 1972 div.gen. Jan Raczkowski was replaced as commander of WLot. by div.gen. Henryk Michałowski, then in 1976 by div.gen. Tadeusz Krepski, in 1983 by div.gen. Tytus Krawczyc and in 1989 by brig.gen. Jerzy Gotowała. In 1976 WOPK commander div.gen. Roman Paszkowski was replaced by div.gen. Longin Łozowicki who remained on this post until 1990.

1977 order of battle:
Wojska Lotnicze
- 4 DLM (Malbork) - 2 PLM (Goleniów), 9 PLM (Debrzno), 41 PLM (Malbork), 46 elł (Malbork)
- 2 DLSzR (Piła) - 6 PLMSz (Piła), 45 PLMSz (Babimost), 21 PLRT (Powidz), 47 elł (Piła)
- 3 DLSzR (Świdwin) - 8 PLMSz (Mirosławiec), 40 PLMSz (Świdwin), 32 PLRT (Sochaczew), 48 elł (Świdwin)
- LWL (Poznań) - 37 PŚT (Łęczyca), 49 PŚ (Pruszcz Gdański), 56 PŚ (Inowrocław)
- 7 BLBR (Powidz), 3 PLMB (Bydgoszcz), 6 PŁ (Śrem), 13 PLT (Kraków), 36 SPLT (Warszawa), 17 el (Poznań), 26 elł (Warszawa)
- WOSL (Dęblin) - 38 LPSzk (Modlin), 66 LPSzk (Tomaszów Mazowiecki), 58 LPSzkB (Dęblin), 60 LPSzkB (Radom), 61 LPSzkB (Biała Podlaska), 47 SzkPŚ (Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą), 23 leszk (Dęblin), 24 szkeś (Dęblin)
- TOSWL (Oleśnica), TSWL (Zamość), 6 OSSŁ (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki), 9 OSSŁ (Mrągowo), OSSUL (Grudziądz)
Wojska Obrony Powietrznej Kraju
- 1 KOPK (Warszawa) - 1 PLM OPK (Mińsk Mazowiecki), 10 PLM OPK (Łask), 42 eltł (Warszawa)
______- 3 DA OPK (Warszawa - 4 SA-75 and 4 S-75M and 4 S-125 battalions), 1 BRt (Warszawa - 5 x brt)
- 2 KOPK (Bydgoszcz) - 26 PLM OPK (Zegrze Pomorskie), 28 PLM OPK (Słupsk), 34 PLM OPK (Gdynia), 19 leh (Słupsk), 43 eltł (Bydgoszcz)
______- 4 BA OPK (Gdynia - 8 S-75M and 4 S-125 battalions), 26 BA OPK (Gryfice - 8 S-75M and 4 S-125 battalions), 2 BRt (Bydgoszcz - 5 x brt)
- 3 KOPK (Wrocław) - 11 PLM OPK (Wrocław), 39 PLM OPK (Mierzęcice), 62 PLM OPK (Poznań), 44 eltł (Wrocław)
______- 1 DA OPK (Bytom - 4 SA-75 and 4 S-75M battalions), 79 SPA OPK (Poznań - 4 SA-75 battalions), 3 BRt (Wrocław - 3 x brt)
- WOSR (Jelenia Góra), CSSAiR (Bemowo Piskie)
naval aviation
- DLiOPL MW (Gdynia) - 7 PLMSz MW (Siemirowice), 15 elr MW (Siemirowice), 18 elł MW (Gdynia), 28 er MW (Darłowo)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BA OPK - Brygada Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Artillery Brigade of the National Air Defence
-BLBR - Brygada Lotnictwa Bombowo-Rozpoznawczego - Bomber-Reconnaissance Aviation Brigade
-BRt - Brygada Radiotechniczna - Radiotechnical (radar) Brigade
-brt - batalion radiotechniczny - Radiotechnical (radar) battalion
-CSSAiR - Centrum Szkolenia Specjalistów Artylerii i Radiolokacji - Artillery and Radiolocation Specialists' Training Centre
-DA OPK - Dywizja Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Artillery Division of the National Air Defence
-DLiOPL MW - Dowództwo Lotnictwa i Obrony Przeciwlotniczej Marynarki Wojennej - Naval Aviation and Anti-Aircraft Defence Command
-DLM - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Division
-DLSzR - Dywizja Lotnictwa Szturmowo-Rozpoznawczego - Attack-Reconnaissance Aviation Division
-el - eskadra lotnicza - Aviation Squadron
-elł - eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego - Liaison Aviation Squadron
-eltł - eskadra lotnictwa transportowo-łącznikowego - Transport-Liaison Aviation Squadron
-elł MW - eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego Marynarki Wojennej - Liaison Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-elr MW - samodzielna eskadra lotnictwa rozpoznawczego Marynarki Wojennej - Reconnaissance Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-er MW - eskadra ratownicza Marynarki Wojennej - SAR Squadron of the Navy
-KOPK - Korpus Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - National Air Defence Corps
-leh - lotnicza eskadra holownicza - Aviational (target) Towing Squadron
-leszk - lotnicza eskadra szkolna - Aviational Training Squadron
-LPSzk - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolny - Aviational Training Regiment
-LPSzkB - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolno-Bojowy - Aviational Combat Training Regiment
-LWL - Lotnictwo Wojsk Lądowych - Land Forces Aviation
-OSSŁ - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Łączności - Signals Specialists' Training Centre
-OSSUL - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Ubezpieczania Lotów - Flight Safety Specialists' Training Centre
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLM OPK - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the National Air Defence
-PLMB - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Bombowego - Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment
-PLMSz - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego - Fighter-Attack Aviation Regiment
-PLMSz MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Szturmowego Marynarki Wojennej - Fighter-Attack Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PLRT - Pułk Lotnictwa Rozpoznania Taktycznego - Tactical Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PLT - Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Transport Aviation Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-PŚ - Pułk Śmigłowców - Helicopter Regiment
-PŚT - Pułk Śmigłowców Transportowych - Transport Helicopter Regiment
-SPA OPK - Samodzielny Pułk Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Autonomus Artillery Regiment of the National Air Defece
-SPLT - Specjalny Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Special Transport Aviation Regiment
-szkeś - szkolna eskadra śmigłowców - Training Helicopter Squadron
-SzkPŚ - Szkolny Pułk Śmigłowców - Training Helicopter Regiment
-TOSWL - Techniczna Oficerska Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces
-TSWL - Techniczna Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces
-WOSL - Wyższa Oficerska Szkoła Lotnicza - Officers' Higher Aviational School
-WOSR - Wyższa Oficerska Szkoła Radiotechniczna - Officers' Higher Radiotechnical School[/spoiler]

In the year 1977 Polish military aviation had 2031 aircraft: 981 combat (136 Lim-2/SBlim-1A/-2A, 404 Lim-5/Lim-6, 371 MiG-21, 13 Il-28, 32 Su-7, 25 Su-20), 207 combat trainers (152 SBLim-1/-2, 41 MiG-21U/US/UM, 7 UIl-28, 7 Su-7U), 281 trainers (279 TS-11, 2 TS-8), 218 transports transports and liaison aircraft (114 An-2, 2 An-12, 1 An-24, 12 An-26, 16 Il-14, 1 Il-18, 17 PZL-104, 2 Tu-134, 41 Yak-12, 12 Yak-40) and 344 helicopters (99 SM-1/SM-2, 20 Mi-4, 199 Mi-2, 26 Mi-8)

After years of steady growth, around 1986 Polish armed forces reached their post-war peak personnel-wise, with around 415.000 men under arms (excluding WOP and NJW MSW) - which would rise to nearly a million upon mobilization, 3200 tanks, 3700 armored combat vehicles, 2100 artillery pieces and almost 2000 aircraft and helicopters, including around 900 combat. Soon after, though, dire economical situation of Poland, as well as international changes, led to wave of reductions.

Wojska Lądowe - direct reporting units
- 15 BRlK (Sieradz), 2 PRREl (Przasnysz), 10 PRSRlk (Dziwnów), 4 PZREl (Giżycko), 1 bSzt (Dziwnów)
Warszawski Okręg Wojskowy (WOW, Warsaw Military District)
- 1 DZ (Legionowo), 3 DZ (Lublin), 9 DZ (Rzeszów), 6 DPD (Kraków)
- 32 BA(RTO) (Orzysz), 1 BAA (Węgorzewo), 2 BS (Kazuń)
- 23 PAA (Bielsko-Biała), 126 PAPPc (Morąg), 15 PAPlot (Gołdap)
- 9 PŁ (Białobrzegi), 13 PRlK (Skierniewice), 9 PZREl (Skierniewice), 3 PChem (Biskupiec), 4 PZD (Warszawa)
- 80 dAPPc (Suwałki), 48 kspc (Kraków)
Pomorski Okręg Wojskowy (POW, Pomeranian Military District)
- 16 DPc (Elbląg), 20 DPc (Szczecinek), 8 DZ (Koszalin), 12 DZ (Szczecin), 15 DZ (Olsztyn), 7 DD (Gdańsk)
- 2 BA(RTO) (Choszczno), 6 BAA (Toruń), 7 BAH (Toruń), 5 BS (Szczecin), 2 BŁ (Wałcz)
- 14 PAPPc (Kwidzyń), 55 PAPlot (Szczecin)
- 3 PPont (Włocławek), 4 PŁ (Bydgoszcz), 24 PŁ (Świecie), 12 PRlK (Świecie), 8 PZREl (Grudziądz), 2 PChem (Grudziądz), 4 PChem (Brodnica), 5 PZD (Bydgoszcz)
- 56 kspc (Szczecin)
Śląski Okręg Wojskowy (SOW, Silesian Military District)
- 5 DPc (Gubin), 10 DPc (Opole), 11 DPc (Żagań), 2 DZ (Nysa), 4 DZ (Krosno Odrzańskie)
- 3 BA(RTO) (Biedrusko), 18 BA(RTO) (Bolesławiec), 5 BAA (Głogów), 23 BAA (Bolesławiec), 61 BA WOPl (Skwierzyna), 1 BS (Brzeg), 4 BS (Gorzów Wielkopolski)
- 20 PAPPc (Pleszew), 91 PAPPc (Gniezno), 69 PAPlot (Leszno), 6 PPont (Głogów), 10 PŁ (Wrocław), 14 PRlK (Strzegom), 11 PZREl (Zgorzelec), 5 PRt (Zgierz), 1 PChem (Zgorzelec)
- 62 kspc (Bolesławiec)
Wojska Obrony Terytorialnej Kraju (WOTK, Forces of National Territory Defence) - Wojska Obrony Wewnętrznej (WOWew. - Internal Territorial Defence Troops)
- 1 BWOW (Góra Kalwaria), 2 BWOW (Białystook), 5 BWOW (Kraków), 14 BWOW (Olsztyn), 8 PWOW (Łódź), 20 BŁ WOW (Kielce), 2 PŁ WOW (Białystok)
- 3 PWOW (Lublin), 10 PWOW (Poznań), 13 PWOW (Gdańsk), 15 PWOW (Prudnik)
- 7 PPont WOW (Dęblin), 9 PPont WOW (Chełmno), 10 PPont WOW (Rawicz), 12 PPont WOW (Szczecin)
- 2 binż WOW (Czerwony Bór), 4 binż WOW (Rzeszów)
Wojska Obrony Terytorialnej Kraju - Wojska Obrony Terytorialnej (WOT - Territorial Defence Troops)
- Warszawska BOT (Warszawa), Krakowski POT (Kraków), Lubelski POT (Radzyń Podlaski), POT miasta Łodzi (Łódź)
- Bydgoski POT (Bydgoszcz), Gdański POT (Gdańsk), Olsztyński POT (Olsztyn), Szczeciński POT (Szczecin)
- Katowicka BOT (Katowice), Opolski POT (Opole), Wielkopolski POT (Poznań), Wrocławski POT (Świdnica)
- plus up to 63 autonomous territorial defence battalions
construction, road building and railroad troops
- 4 PDE (Nisko), 12 PDE (Modlin), 3 PM (Płock), 8 PM (Grudziądz)
- 5 PKM (Modlin), 2 PK (Inowrocław), 10 PK (Przemyśl), 11 PK (Przemyśl), 12 PK (Tarnowskie Góry)
- 32 PB (Wrocław), 33 PB (Gdynia), 39 PB (Bochnia), 61 PB (Warszawa), 2 PBŁ (Zgierz), 27 PIB (Gniezno), 30 PIB (Olsztyn), 31 PIB (Piła), 34 PIB (Zabrze), 35 PIB (Krotoszyn), 36 PIB (Szczecin), 38 PIB (Jarosław), 1 PIT (Grupa), 28 PIT (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BA(RTO) - Brygada Artylerii (Rakiet Taktyczno-Operacyjnych) - Artillery Brigade (Tactical-Operational Missiles)
-BAA - Brygada Artylerii Armat - Gun Artillery Brigade
-BAH - Brygada Artylerii Haubic - Howitzer Artillery Brigade
-BA WOPl - Brygada Artylerii Wojsk Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Artillery Brigade of the Anti-Aircraft Defence Troops
-binż WOW - batalion inżynieryjny Wojsk Obrony Wewnętrznej - engineering-construction battalion of the Internal Defence Troops
-BŁ - Brygada Łączności - Signals Brigade
-BŁ WOW - Brygada Łączności Wojsk Obrony Wewnętrznej - Signals Brigade of the Internal Defence Troops
-BOT - Brygada Obrony Terytorialnej - Territorial Defence Brigade
-BRlK - Brygada Radioliniowo-Kablowa - Microwave and Wire (communications) Brigade
-BS - Brygada Saperów - Engineers Brigade
-bszt - batalion szturmowy - Assault Battalion (special forces)
-BWOW - Brygada Wojsk Obrony Wewnętrznej - Internal Defence Troops Brigade (de facto small division)
-dappc - dywizjon artylerii przeciwpancernej - Anti-Armor Artillery Battalion
-DD - Dywizja Desantowa - Assault (marines) Division
-DPc - Dywizja Pancerna - Armored Division
-DPD - Dywizja Powietrzno-Desantowa - Airborne Division
-DZ - Dywizja Zmechanizowana - Mechanized Division
-kspc - kompania specjalna - Special (forces) company
-PAA - Pułk Artylerii Armat - Gun Artillery Regiment
-PAPlot - Pułk Artylerii Przeciwlotniczej - Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
-PAPPc - Pułk Artylerii Przeciwpancernej - Anti-Armor Artillery Regiment
-PB - Pułk Budowlany - Construction Regiment
-PBŁ - Pułk Budowalny Łączności - Communications (signals) Construction Regiment
-PChem - Pułk Chemiczny - Chemical Regiment (NBC defense)
-PDE - Pułk Drogowo-Eksploatacyjny - Road Maintenance and Building Regiment
-PIB - Pułk Inżynieryjno-Budowlany - Engineering/Construction Regiment
-PIT - Pułk Inżynieryjno-Techniczny - Engineering/Technical Regiment
-PK - Pułk Kolejowy - Railway Regiment
-PKM - Pułk Kolejowo-Mostowy - Railway Bridges Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-PŁ WOW - Pułk Łączności Wojsk Obrony Wewnętrznej - Signals Regiment of the Internal Defence Troops
-PM - Pułk Mostowy - Bridging Regiment
-POT - Pułk Obrony Terytorialnej - Territorial Defence Regiment
-PPont - Pułk Pontonowy - Pontoon Regiment
-PPont WOW - Pułk Pontonowy Wojsk Obrony Wewnętrznej - Pontoon Regiment of the Internal Defence Troops
-PRlK - Pułk Radioliniowo-Kablowy - Microwave and Wire (communications) Regiment
-PRREl - Pułk Rozpoznania Radioelektronicznego - Radioelectronical Reconnaissance Regiment
-PRSRlk - Pułk Rozpoznania Systemów Radiolokacyjnych - Reconnaissance of Radiolocation Systems Regiment (SIGINT)
-PRt - Pułk Radiotechniczny - Radiotechnical (radar) Regiment
-PWOW - Pułk Wojsk Obrony Wewnętrznej - Internal Defence Troops Regiment
-PZD - Pułk Zabezpieczenia Dowodzenia - Command Support Regiment
-PZREl - Pułk Zakłóceń Radioelektronicznych - Electronic Warfare Regiment (lit. Radioelectronical Interferences Regiment)[/spoiler]

Marynarka Wojenna
- 3 FO (Gdynia) - 1 DKTR, 2 DKTR, 3 DOP, 45 DPJP, WDS
- 8 FOW (Świnoujście) - 12 DT, 42 DPJP, 9 daplot, 8 bsap
______- 2 BOD - 1 DOD, 2 DOD, 3 DKD, 1 dsm
- 9 FOW (Hel) - 11 DŚ, 13 DT, 43 DPJP, 7 daplot, 43 bsap
- LMW (Gdynia) - 7 PLMB MW (Siemirowice), 16 PLS MW (Darłowo), 15 elr MW (Siemirowice), 18 elł MW (Gdynia)
- 41 DOR (Gdynia), OZH (Gdynia)
- 6 PRREl (Gdynia), 11 PŁ (Wejherowo), 33 PIB (Gdynia), 3 PZD (Gdynia), 9 dan (Gdynia)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BOD - Brygada Okrętów Desantowych - Landing Ship Brigade
-bsap - batalion saperów - Engineering Battalion
-dan - dywizjon artylerii nadbrzeżnej - Coastal Artillery Battalion
-daplot - dywizjon artylerii przeciwlotniczej - Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battalion
-dsm - dywizjon saperów morskich - Naval Sappers Group
-DKD - Dywizjon Kutrów Desantowych - Landing Cutter Squadron
-DKTR - Dywizjon Kutrów Torpedowo-Rrakietowych - Torpedo- and Rocket-Cutter Squadron
-DOD - Dywizjon Okrętów Desantowych - Landing Ship Squadron
-DOP - Dywizjon Okrętów Podwodnych - Submarine Squadron
-DOR - Dywizjon Okrętów Ratowniczych - Rescue Ship Squadron
-DPJP - Dywizjon Pomocnicznych Jednostek Pływających - Auxiliary Vessels Squadron
-DŚ - Dywizjon Ścigaczy - Chasers Squadron (ASW)
-DT - Dywizjon Trałowców - Minesweepers Squadron
-elł MW - eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego Marynarki Wojennej - Liaison Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-elr MW - samodzielna eskadra lotnictwa rozpoznawczego Marynarki Wojennej - Reconnaissance Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-FO - Flotylla Okrętów - Warship Flotilla
-FOW - Flotylla Obrony Wybrzeża - Coastal Defence Flotilla
-LMW - Lotnictwo Marynarki Wojennej - Naval Aviation
-OZH - Oddział Zabezpieczenia Hydrograficznego - Hydrographical (survey) Support Group
-PIB - Pułk Inżynieryjno-Budowlany - Engineering/Construction Regiment
-PLMB MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Bombowego Marynarki Wojennej - Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PLS MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Specjalnego Marynarki Wojennej - Special Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-PRREl - Pułk Rozpoznania Radioelektronicznego - Radioelectronical Reconnaissance Regiment
-PZD - Pułk Zabezpieczenia Dowodzenia - Command Support Regiment
-WDS - Wydział Działań Specjalnych - Special Operations Department (naval underwater special forces unit)[/spoiler]

Wojska Lotnicze
- 2 DLMB (Piła) - 6 PLMB (Piła - Su-22), 21 PLMB (Powidz - Lim-6), 7 PLBR (Powidz - Su-20), 45 LPSzkB (Babimost - Lim-6), 47 elł (Piła - An-2, Mi-2)
- 3 DLMB (Świdwin) - 3 PLMB (Bydgoszcz - Su-7), 8 PLMB (Mirosławiec - Lim-6), 40 PLMB (Świdwin - Su-22), 48 elł (Świdwin - An-2, Mi-2)
- 4 DLM (Malbork) - 2 PLM (Goleniów - MiG-21PFM), 9 PLM (Debrzno - MiG-21M/MF), 41 PLM (Malbork - MiG-21MF), 46 elł (Malbork - An-2, Mi-2)
- LWL (Poznań) - 37 PŚT (Łęczyca - Mi-8, Mi-6), 49 PŚB (Pruszcz Gdański - Mi-24, Mi-2), 56 PŚB (Inowrocław - Mi-24, Mi-2)
- 6 PŁ (Śrem), 13 PLT (Kraków - An-2, An-12, An-26, Il-14), 32 PLRT (Sochaczew - MiG-21R), 36 SPLT (Warszawa - Ił-18, Tu-134, Yak-40, Mi-8), 17 el (Poznań - An-2, Mi-2, Yak-40), 45 led (Modlin)
- WOSL (Dęblin) - 38 LPSzB (Modlin - SBLim-2, Lim-5), 58 LPSzB (Dęblin - SBLim-2, Lim-5, TS-11), 61 LPSzB (Biała Podlaska - SBLim-2, Lim-5), 60 LPSz (Radom - TS-11), 66 LPSz (Tomaszów Mazowiecki - TS-11), 47 SzkPŚ (Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą - Mi-2), 23 leszk (Dęblin - An-2, Il-14, Mi-2)
- TOSWL (Oleśnica), TSWL (Zamość), 6 OSSŁ (Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki), 9 OSSŁ (Mrągowo), OSSUL (Grudziądz)

Wojska Obrony Powietrznej Kraju
- 1 KOPK (Warszawa) - 1 PLM OPK (Mińsk Mazowiecki - MiG-21PF), 10 PLM OPK (Łask - MiG-21PF), 19 leh (Słupsk - TS-11, Yak-40), 42 eltł (Warszawa - An-2, Mi-2)
______- 3 DA OPK (Warszawa - 4 SA-75 and 4 S-75M and 4 S-125 battalions), 1 BRt (Warszawa - 5 x brt)
- 2 KOPK (Bydgoszcz) - 26 PLM OPK (Zegrze Pomorskie - MiG-21bis), 28 PLM OPK (Słupsk - MiG-23), 34 PLM OPK (Gdynia - MiG-21bis), 43 eltł (Bydgoszcz - An-2, Mi-2)
______- 4 BA OPK (Gdynia - 8 S-75M and 4 S-125 battalions), 26 BA OPK (Gryfice - 8 S-75M and 4 S-125 battalions), 2 BRt (Bydgoszcz - 5 x brt)
- 3 KOPK (Wrocław) - 11 PLM OPK (Wrocław - MiG-21MF), 39 PLM OPK (Mierzęcice - MiG-21PFM), 62 PLM OPK (MiG-21MF), 44 eltł (Wrocław - An-2, Mi-2)
______- 1 DA OPK (Bytom - 2 SA-75 and 4 S-75M and 6 S-125 battalions), 79 SPA OPK (Poznań - 3 SA-75 and 3 S-125 battalions), 3 BRt (Wrocław - 3 x brt)
- WOSR (Jelenia Góra), CSS WOPK (Bemowo Piskie)
(also 78 PA OPK at Mrzeżyno being formed with S-200)

Theoretically WOPK combat regiments had 2 squadrons each with 16 combat aircraft and 2 combat trainers (total 32+4), while WLot. combat regiments had 3 squadrons each with 2 combat aircraft and 2 combat trainers (total 36+6). Additionaly each regiment was supposed to have several communications aircraft, but here sources are somewhat conflicting - anyway, more or less it was supposed to be something like 1 PZL-104, 1-2 An-2, 1-2 Mi-2 (uncertain) and 2 TS-11 per squadron (so 4-6 total). In practice it could look very, very different).

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BA OPK - Brygada Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Artillery Brigade of the National Air Defence
-BRt - Brygada Radiotechniczna - Radiotechnical (radar) Brigade
-brt - batalion radiotechniczny - Radiotechnical (radar) battalion
-CSS WOPK - Centrum Szkolenia Specjalistów Wojsk Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Specialists' Training Centre of the Forces of the National Air Defence
-DA OPK - Dywizja Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Artillery Division of the National Air Defence
-DLM - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Division
-DLMB - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Bombowego - Fighter-Bomber Aviation Division
-el - eskadra lotnicza - Aviation Squadron
-elł - eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego - Liaison Aviation Squadron
-eltł - eskadra lotnictwa transportowo-łącznikowego - Transport-Liaison Aviation Squadron
-KOPK - Korpus Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - National Air Defence Corps
-led - lotnicza eskadra doświadczalna - Experimental Aviation Squadron
-leh - lotnicza eskadra holownicza - Aviational (target) Towing Squadron
-leszk - lotnicza eskadra szkolna - Aviational Training Squadron
-LPSzk - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolny - Aviational Training Regiment
-LPSzkB - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolno-Bojowy - Aviational Combat Training Regiment
-LWL - Lotnictwo Wojsk Lądowych - Land Forces Aviation
-OSSŁ - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Łączności - Signals Specialists' Training Centre
-OSSUL - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Ubezpieczania Lotów - Flight Safety Specialists' Training Centre
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLM OPK - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the National Air Defence
-PLMB - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Bombowego - Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment
-PLBR - Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowo-Rozpoznawczego - Bomber-Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PLRT - Pułk Lotnictwa Rozpoznania Taktycznego - Tactical Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PLT - Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Transport Aviation Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-PŚB - Pułk Śmigłowców Bojowych - Combat Helicopter Regiment
-PŚT - Pułk Śmigłowców Transportowych - Transport Helicopter Regiment
-SPA OPK - Samodzielny Pułk Artylerii Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Autonomus Artillery Regiment of the National Air Defece
-SPLT - Specjalny Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Special Transport Aviation Regiment
-SzkPŚ - Szkolny Pułk Śmigłowców - Training Helicopter Regiment
-TOSWL - Techniczna Oficerska Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces
-TSWL - Techniczna Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych - Technical School of the Aviational Forces
-WOSL - Wyższa Oficerska Szkoła Lotnicza - Officers' Higher Aviational School
-WOSR - Wyższa Oficerska Szkoła Radiotechniczna - Officers' Higher Radiotechnical School[/spoiler]

In 1986 Polish air forces had 1990 aircraft: 933 combat (35 Lim-2/SBLim-2A, 345 Lim-5/Lim-6, 405 MiG-21, 34 MiG-23, 29 Su-7, 23 Su-20, 62 Su-22), 278 combat trainers (183 SBLim-2, 68 MiG-21U/US/UM, 6 MiG-23UB, 6 Su-7U, 15 Su-22U), 287 trainers (TS-11), 162 transport and liaison aircraft (100 An-2, 1 An-12, 1 An-24, 12 An-26, 15 Il-14, 1 Il-18, 13 PZL-104, 2 Tu-134, 17 Yak-40) and 330 helicopters (266 Mi-2, 33 Mi-8, 15 Mi-14, 16 Mi-24)

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Last edited by eswube on August 30th, 2017, 6:57 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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eswube
Post subject: Re: Polish WingsPosted: October 7th, 2016, 10:23 pm
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New horizons (1990-today)
As mentioned before, changing international circumstances (as well as economic difficulties) led to process of reductions of Polish armed forces. In the WLot. and WOPK it meant retirement of oldest types of aircraft and disbanding of units using them. More significantly, with Poland now on it's way out of Warsaw Pact (although formally it was disbanded only in 1991) and therefore unlikely to participate in any offensive war in Europe, it was reckogned that two separate air arms are no longer needed and another major reorganization occured in 1990, this time by merger of WLot. and WOPK into single service: Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej (WLiOP, Forces of Aviation and Air Defence), led by div.gen. Jerzy Gotowała.

Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej, 1991
- 1 KOP (Warszawa) - 1 PLM (Mińsk Mazowiecki - MiG-21, MiG-29), 10 PLM (Łask - MiG-21), 19 leh (Słupsk - TS-11, Yak-40), 42 eltł (Warszawa - An-2, Mi-2)
______- 3 BR OP (Warszawa - 3 SA-75 and 4 S-75M and 4 S-125 battalions), 1 BRt (Warszawa - 5 x brt)
- 2 KOP (Bydgoszcz) - 2 PLM (Goleniów - MiG-21), 9 PLM (Zegrze Pomorskie - MiG-21), 28 PLM (Słupsk - MiG-23), 41 PLM (Malbork - MiG-21), 43 eltł (Bydgoszcz - An-2, Mi-2)
______- 4 BR OP (Gdynia - 7 S-75M and 4 S-125 battalions), 26 BR OP (Gryfice - 7 S-75M and 3 S-125 battalions), 78 PR OP (Mrzeżyno - 2 S-200 battalions), 2 BRt (Bydgoszcz - 5 x brt)
- 3 KOP (Wrocław) - 11 PLM (Wrocław - MiG-21), 62 PLM (Poznań - MiG-21), 44 eltł (Wrocław - An-2, Mi-2)
______- 1 BR OP (Bytom - 3S-75M and 6 S-125 battalions), 79 SPA OPK (Poznań - 1 SA-75 and 3 S-125 battalions), 3 BRt (Wrocław - 3 x brt)
- 4 KL (Poznań) -
______- 2 DLMB (Piła) - 6 PLMB (Piła - Su-22), 7 PLBR (Powidz - Su-20, Su-22), 45 LPSzkB (Babimost - Lim-6)
______- 3 DLMB (Świdwin) - 3 LPSzkB (Bydgoszcz - TS-11), 8 PLMB (Mirosławiec - Su-22), 40 PLMB (Świdwin - Su-22)
______- LWL (Poznań) - 37 PŚT (Łęczyca - Mi-8/-17, Mi-6), 49 PŚB (Pruszcz Gdański - Mi-24, Mi-2), 56 PŚB (Inowrocław - Mi-24, Mi-2)
- 6 PŁ (Śrem), 13 PLT (Kraków - An-2, An-12, An-26, Il-14), 32 PLRT (Sochaczew - MiG-21R), 36 SPLT (Warszawa - Tu-134, Tu-154, Yak-40, B412, Mi-8), 17 el (Poznań - An-2, Mi-2, Yak-40), 45 led (Modlin)
- WOSL (Dęblin) - 58 LPSzkB (Dęblin - TS-11), 60 LPSzk (Radom - TS-11), 61 LPSzkB (Biała Podlaska - TS-11), 47 SzkPŚ (Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą - Mi-2), 23 leszk (Dęblin - An-2)
- WOSR (Jelenia Góra), CSS WOPK (Bemowo Piskie), CSIL (Oleśnica), 9 OSSŁ (Mrągowo), OSSUL (Grudziądz)
naval aviation
- LMW (Gdynia) - 34 PLM MW (Gdynia - MiG-21), 7 PLS MW (Siemirowice - An-2, TS-11, Mi-2), 18 elłr MW (Gdynia - An-2, An-28/M-28, W-3, Mi-2, 40 ezopir MW (Darłowo - Mi-14)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BR OP - Brygada Rakietowa Obrony Powietrznej - Missile Brigade of the Air Defence
-BRt - Brygada Radiotechniczna - Radiotechnical (radar) Brigade
-brt - batalion radiotechniczny - Radiotechnical (radar) battalion
-CSIL - Centrum Szkolenia Inżynieryjno-Lotniczego - Aviational Engineering Training Centre
-CSS WOPK - Centrum Szkolenia Specjalistów Wojsk Obrony Powietrznej Kraju - Specialists' Training Centre of the Forces of the National Air Defence
-DLM - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Division
-DLMB - Dywizja Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Bombowego - Fighter-Bomber Aviation Division
-el - eskadra lotnicza - Aviation Squadron
-elł - eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowego - Liaison Aviation Squadron
-eltł - eskadra lotnictwa transportowo-łącznikowego - Transport-Liaison Aviation Squadron
-elłr MW - eskadra lotnictwa łącznikowo-ratowniczego Marynarki Wojennej - Liaison and SAR Aviation Squadron of the Navy
-ezopir MW - eskadra zwalczania okrętów podwodnych i ratownictwa Marynarki Wojennej - ASW and SAR Squadron of the Navy
-KL - Korpus Lotniczy - Air Corps
-KOP - Korpus Obrony Powietrznej - Air Defence Corps
-led - lotnicza eskadra doświadczalna - Experimental Aviation Squadron
-leh - lotnicza eskadra holownicza - Aviational (target) Towing Squadron
-leszk - lotnicza eskadra szkolna - Aviational Training Squadron
-LMW - Lotnictwo Marynarkii Wojennej - Naval Aviation
-LPSzk - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolny - Aviational Training Regiment
-LPSzkB - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolno-Bojowy - Aviational Combat Training Regiment
-LWL - Lotnictwo Wojsk Lądowych - Land Forces Aviation
-OSSŁ - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Łączności - Signals Specialists' Training Centre
-OSSUL - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Ubezpieczania Lotów - Flight Safety Specialists' Training Centre
-PLBR - Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowo-Rozpoznawczego - Bomber-Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLM MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego Marynarki Wojennej - Fighter Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PLMB - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Bombowego - Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment
-PLRT - Pułk Lotnictwa Rozpoznania Taktycznego - Tactical Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PLS MW - Pułk Lotnictwa Specjalnego Marynarki Wojennej - Special Aviation Regiment of the Navy
-PLT - Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Transport Aviation Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-PR OP - Pułk Rakietowy Obrony Powietrznej - Missile Regiment of the Air Defence
-PŚB - Pułk Śmigłowców Bojowych - Combat Helicopter Regiment
-PŚT - Pułk Śmigłowców Transportowych - Transport Helicopter Regiment
-SPR OP - Samodzielny Pułk Rakietowy Obrony Powietrznej - Autonomous Missile Regiment of the Air Defence
-SPLT - Specjalny Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Special Transport Aviation Regiment
-SzkPŚ - Szkolny Pułk Śmigłowców - Training Helicopter Regiment
-WOSL - Wyższa Oficerska Szkoła Lotnicza - Officers' Higher Aviational School
-WOSR - Wyższa Oficerska Szkoła Radiotechniczna - Officers' Higher Radiotechnical School[/spoiler]

In 1991 Polish air forces had total of 1452 aircraft: 575 combat (10 SBLim-2A, 110 Lim-5/Lim-6, 308 MiG-21, 31 MiG-23, 9 MiG-29, 21 Su-20, 86 Su-22), 140 combat trainers (54 SBlim-2, 58 MiG-21US/UM, 6 MiG-23UB, 3 MiG-29UB, 19 Su-22U), 279 trainers (TS-11), 134 transport and liaison aircraft (85 An-2, 1 An-12, 1 An-24, 12 An-26, 2 An-28, 4 Il-14, 9 PZL-104, 2 Tu-134, 1 Tu-154, 17 Yak-40) and 324 helicopters (243 Mi-2, 36 Mi-8/-17, 14 Mi-14, 29 Mi-24, 2 W-3).

Decade of 1990s was a period of steady reductions of the WLiOP, with older types of equipment being gradually phased out, although most ofen without replacement. In air defence troops the SA-75/S-75M missiles were retired (with last unit being disbanded in 2001), leaving only S-125 (gradually upgraded domestically to Newa-SC standard from mid-1990s onwards) and S-200, as well as 2K11 Krug systems transferred in 1996 from the land forces. During the decade military received only limited numbers of helicopters and training and transport aircraft of domestic manufacture, with only foreign purchase of combat aircraft being a squadron of second-hand MiG-29's from Czech Republic (traded for squadron of W-3's). Slightly better situation was in radiotechnical troops where Polish electrotechnical industry was able to deliver excellent early warning radar stations (purchase of which - as part of modernization of the aerospace control systems - was necessitated by preparations to enter NATO in 1999).

Basic structure of the WLiOP, with 3 air defence and 1 tactical aviation corps' remained basically constant for most of the decade, with exception of transfer of army aviation to Wojska Lądowe in 1994-1995. Army at that time had ambitious (given the available funding perhaps more appropriate word would be: "grandiose") plans about it's Wojska Aeromobilne (Airmobile Troops), which consists of both aviation and airborne units. Centerpiece of this plan was creation of the rapid-reaction 25 Dywizja Kawalerii Powietrznej (25 DKPow, 25 Air Cavalry Division) - large formation reminiscent of the Vietnam-era US 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile). Division was to field at least 150 helicopters in three regiments (two of which were effectively formed - one on 37 PŚT from Łęczyca and one on 66 LPSzk from Tomaszów Mazowiecki), but these plans failed for reasons twofold - first, there was not enough money in the budget for that number of helicopters and secondly the planned structure contained a serious flaw: whereas typical air-assault units have their aviation and infantry assets separate (like the 1st Cav.Div. that had 8 infantry and 3 transport helicopter battalions), allowing them to be flexibly attached on both "as needed" and "as possible" basis, in 25 DKPow the infantry sub-units (squads/platoons) were to have the helicopters assigned to themselves permamently, much like APC's or IFV's in mechanized infantry, which in turn caused serious problems stemming from serviceability of helicopters (and therefore operational flexibility), negatively impacting training and operations. As a result, in 1999 25 DKPow. was downsized to brigade (25 Brygada Kawalerii Powietrznej, 25 BKPow.) with two airmobile and two helicopter battalions. Also the naval aviation was reorganized with old arrangement being replaced 1994-1995 with Brygada Lotnictwa Marynarki Wojennej (BLMW, Aviation Brigade of the Navy) divided into three mixed groups (using traditional name "dywizjon"), in turn divided into squadrons; with bases at Gdynia-Babie Doły, Darłowo and Siemirowice.

Due to incoming entry to NATO, 1998 saw next reorganization in WLiOP, with 1 KOP and 4 KL (along with 2 and 3 DLMB) being disbanded and their assets (as well as area of responsibility in case of 1 KOP) being distributed between 2 and 3 KOP. Poland's entry to NATO had a profound impact not only in the overall security environment of Poland (or at least on the perception of it, if we consider, in light, for example, of current events in eastern Ukraine that much of the geopolitical optimism of 1990s seems today not particularly well founded), but also bring important changes on the funding levels of the Polish military which on one hand had to meet certain technical goals regarding interoperability and on the other Poland has, in the accession treaty, agreed to keep certain minimum defence spending levels (relative to GNP) and to modernization in particular. In 1995 div.gen. Jerzy Gotowała was replaced as head of WLiOP by div.gen. Kazimierz Dziok, who was, in turn replaced in 1999 by gen.arms Andrzej Dulęba, followed in 2002 by gen.arms Ryszard Olszewski, by gen.arms. Stanisław Targosz in 2005, gen.arms. Andrzej Błasik in 2007 and gen.arms. Lech Majewski in 2010.

Order of battle of Polish air forces in late 1998/early 1999 was as follows:
Wojska Lotnicze i Obrony Powietrznej
- 2 KOP (Bydgoszcz) - 9 PLM (Zegrze Pomorskie - MiG-21), 28 PLM (Słupsk - MiG-23), 41 PLM (Malbork - MiG-21), 8 PLMB (Mirosławiec - Su-22), 40 PLMB (Świdwin - Su-22), 2 eltł (Bydgoszcz - An-2, Mi-2), 19 leh (Słupsk - TS-11, Yak-40)
______- 4 BR OP (Gdynia - 3 S-75M and 4 S-125 battalions), 26 BR OP (Gryfice - 4 S-75M and 3 S-125 battalions), 78 PR OP (Mrzeżyno - 2 S-200 battalions), 2 BRt (Bydgoscz - 7 x brt)
- 3 KOP (Wrocław) - 1 PLM (Mińsk Mazowiecki - MiG-29), 3 PLM (Poznań - MiG-21), 7 PLBR (Powidz - Su-22), 10 PLM (Łask - MiG-21), 11 PLM (Wrocław - MiG-21), 3 eltł (Wrocław - An-2, Mi-2), 17 el (Poznań - An-2, TS-11, Yak-40, Mi-2)
______- 1 BR OP (Bytom - 6 S-125 battalions), 3 BR OP (Warszawa - 4 S-75M and 5 S-125 battalions), 61 BPlot (Skwierzyna - 3 2K11 battalions), 79 SPR OP (Poznań - 3 S-125 battalions), 3 BRt (Wrocław - 7 x brt)
- 5 PRt (Zgierz), 6 PŁ (Śrem), 9 PREl (Lidzbark Warmiński), 13 PLT (Warszawa - An-2, An-26, An-28, Mi-2), 36 SPLT (Warszawa - Tu-154, Yak-40, B412, Mi-8, W-3), 45 el (Modlin - An-2, MiG-21, PZL-130, TS-11, Mi-2)
- WSOSP (Dęblin) - 58 LPSzk (Dęblin - TS-11, I-22), 60 LPSzk (Radom - PZL-130, TS-11), 61 LPSzkB (Biała Podlaska - TS-11), 47 SzkPŚ (Nowe Miasto nad Pilicą - Mi-2, W-3), 23 leszk (Dęblin - An-2, PZL-130)
- CSIL (Oleśnica), CSOPl (Koszalin), 9 OSSŁ (Mrągowo)
Note: in each KOP a Tactical Aviation Brigade was being formed; also each PLM and PLMB had several TS-11's.
Lotnictwo Wojsk Lądowych
- 25 DKPow. (Łódź) - 1 PSzwZŁ (Łęczyca - Mi-8/-17), 7 PUL (Tomaszów Mazowiecki - W-3)
- 49 PŚB (Pruszcz Gdański - Mi-24, Mi-2), 56 PŚB (Inowrocław - Mi-24, Mi-2)
Lotnictwo Marynarki Wojennej
- BLMW (Gdynia) - 1 dl MW (Gdynia - MiG-21, An-28, Mi-2, W-3), 2 dl MW (Darłowo - Mi-2, Mi-14), 3 dl MW (Siemirowice - An-2, An-28, TS-11)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BLMW - Brygada Lotnictwa Marynarki Wojennej - Aviation Brigade of the Navy
-BPlot - Brygada Przeciwlotnicza - Anti-Aircraft Brigade (ex-land forces)
-BR OP - Brygada Rakietowa Obrony Powietrznej - Missile Brigade of the Air Defence
-BRt - Brygada Radiotechniczna - Radiotechnical (radar) Brigade
-brt - batalion radiotechniczny - Radiotechnical (radar) battalion
-CSIL - Centrum Szkolenia Inżynieryjno-Lotniczego - Aviational Engineering Training Centre
-CSOPl - Centrum Szkolenia Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Anti-Aircraft Defence Training Centre (joint land/air force)
-CSSWR - Centrum Szkolenia Specjalistów Wojsk Rakietowych - Missile Troops Specialists' Training Centre
-DKPow. - Dywizja Kawalerii Powietrznej - Air Cavalry Division
-dl MW - dywizjon lotniczy Marynarki Wojennej - Air Group of the Navy
-el - eskadra lotnicza - Aviation Squadron
-eltł - eskadra lotnictwa transportowo-łącznikowego - Transport-Liaison Aviation Squadron
-KOP - Korpus Obrony Powietrznej - Air Defence Corps
-leh - lotnicza eskadra holownicza - Aviational (target) Towing Squadron
-leszk - lotnicza eskadra szkolna - Aviational Training Squadron
-LPSzk - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolny - Aviational Training Regiment
-LPSzkB - Lotniczy Pułk Szkolno-Bojowy - Aviational Combat Training Regiment
-OSSŁ - Ośrodek Szkolenia Specjalistów Łączności - Signals Specialists' Training Centre
-PLBR - Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowo-Rozpoznawczego - Bomber-Reconnaissance Aviation Regiment
-PLM - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego - Fighter Aviation Regiment
-PLMB - Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwsko-Bombowego - Fighter-Bomber Aviation Regiment
-PLT - Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Transport Aviation Regiment
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment
-PREl - Pułk Radioelektroniczny - Radioelectronical (electronic warfare) Regiment
-PR OP - Pułk Rakietowy Obrony Powietrznej - Missile Regiment of the Air Defence
-PRt - Pułk Radiotechniczny - Radiotechnical Regiment
-PŚB - Pułk Śmigłowców Bojowych - Combat Helicopter Regiment
-PSzwZŁ - Pułk Szwoleżerów Ziemi Łęczyckiej - Regiment of Chevaux-legers of the Łęczyca Region
-PUL - Pułk Ułanów Lubelskich - Regiment of Uhlans of Lublin
-SPLT - Specjalny Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Special Transport Aviation Regiment
-SPR OP - Samodzielny Pułk Rakietowy Obrony Powietrznej - Autonomous Missile Regiment of the Air Defence
-SzkPŚ - Szkolny Pułk Śmigłowców - Training Helicopter Regiment
-WSOSP - Wyższa Szkoła Oficerska Sił Powietrznych - Air Forces' Officers' Higher School[/spoiler]

Turn of the century begun a new reorganization of WLiOP, although much deeper than before and therefore spread over several years. While the changes of higher headquarters were to be limited, this time it was the basic units that were to be affected. Structure inherited on Warsaw Pact, based on regiments based each in single air base (with squadrons being merely their sub-units with next to none logistical or administrative independence) to based on squadrons (in more NATO-like sense of the word), which in turn were subordinated to brigades overseeing several air bases (with most regiments being turned to single squadrons, although several were reorganized into two squadrons each). Three combat brigades were planned, but eventually just two were formed. That change was followed by gradual disestablishment of KOP's - their operational command posts were disbanded in 2002 and following that corps' duties were gradually reduced, though formally they were liquidated only in 2007.

By 2004 Polish armed forces were reduced to 150.000 active troops. That marked important point in the 2003-2008 modernization plan, as - in theory - it meant that (while certain alterations to particular units were still to be made) basic structure was supposed to remain fairly stable for a time being and emphasis would be now put on equipment improvements. In the air force it also marked a symbolic change, as the service was renamed from WLiOP to Siły Powietrzne (SP, Air Forces). (Possibly to make it sound more "western" - apparently there was nobody around to tell the decisionmakers that use of the term "air force" taken literally - of course in local languages - in formal names of air services of other NATO countries is indeed very far from universal. That somewhat slavish "westernization" was also reflected by changes made in 2002 to highest general/admiral ranks - 4-star generał armii - "general of the army" was replaced by simple generał - "general" - though that was mostly because "generał armii" gave connotations to gen. Wojciech Jaruzelski, last "communist" leader of Poland; what's more peculiar, whereas previously admirał - "admiral" was 3-star rank, in 2002 it become 4-star one - like in the USA, for example, and new 3-star rank is admirał floty - "admiral of the fleet" - which everywhere else is above the admiral, not below. No need to mention that so far we have no 4-star admirals, but during these 14 years Polish navy produced more "admirals of the fleet" than the rest of the world combined . Ok, end of the rant ;) :P ).

Of the 150.000 personnel of the Polish armed forces in 2004 17.100 were in central institution (general staff, Warsaw Garrison Command, military police etc. etc.), 89.000 in land forces, 13.000 in the navy and 30.900 in the air force.
Wojska Lądowe
- 1 KZ (Bydgoszcz - in process of disbandment) - 12 DZ (Szczecin), 16 DZ (Elbląg), 2 BZ (Budowo), 7 BOW (Koszalin), 1 BA (Węgorzewo), 2 BS (Kazuń), 9 PR (Lidzbark Warmiński), 14 PAPPc (Suwałki), 8 PPlot (Koszalin), 49 PŚB (Pruszcz Gdański), 3 PDM (Włocławek), 4 PChem (Brodnica), 4 PDow (Bydgoszcz), 8 bwre (Grudziądz),
- 2 KZ (Kraków) - 11 DKPc (Żagań), 1 DZ (Warszawa), 6 BDSz (Kraków), 25 BKPow (Tomaszów Mazowiecki), 23 BA (Bolesławiec), 1 BS (Brzeg), 2 PR (Hrubieszów), 69 PPlot (Leszno), 56 PŚB (Inowrocław), 1 PDM (Dęblin), 5 PDow (Kraków), 5 bchem (Tarnowskie Góry), 11 bwre (Legnica),
- Polish elements of the Multinational Corps North-East (Szczecin) - 5 PI (Szczecin), 6 das (Toruń)
- Pomorski Okręg Wojskowy (Bydgoszcz) - 1 BOT (Lębork), 2 BOT (Mińsk Mazowiecki), 18 BOT (Białystok), 1 BLog (Bydgoszcz - being formed)
- Śląski Okręg Wojskowy (Wrocław) - 3 BOT (Zamość), 14 BOT (Przemyśl), 22 BOT (Kłodzko), 10 BLog (Opole)
- 15 BWDow (Sieradz), 1 PSpc (Lubliniec), 9 PDow (Białobrzegi), 10 PDow (Wrocław), 2 OREl (Przasnysz)
Note: at that point military districts role was mainly logistical-administrative one, as well as overseeing the territorial defence.

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BA - Brygada Artylerii - Artillery Brigade
-bchem - batalion chemiczny - Chemical battalion (NBC defence)
-BDSz - Brygada Desantowo-Szturmowa - Air Assault Brigade
-BKPow - Brygada Kawalerii Powietrznej - Air Cavalry Brigade
-BLog - Brygada Logistyczna - Logistics Brigade
-BOT - Brygada Obrony Terytorialnej - Territorial Defence Brigade
-BOW - Brygada Obrony Wybrzeża - Coast Defence Brigade (mechanized)
-BS - Brygada Saperów - Engineers Brigade
-BWDow - Brygada Wsparcia Dowodzenia - Command Support Brigade
-bwre - batalion walki radioelektronicznej - Electronic Warfare Battalion
-BZ - Brygada Zmechanizowana - Mechanized Brigade
-das - dywizjon artylerii samobieżnej - Self-propelled Artillery Battalion
-DKPc - Dywizja Kawalerii Pancernej - Armored Cavalry Division (tank division)
-DZ - Dywizja Zmechanizowana - Mechanized Division
-OREl - Ośrodek Radioelektroniczny - Radioelectronical Centre (SIGINT and Electronic Warfare)
-PAPPc - Pułk Artylerii Przeciwpancernej - Anti-Armor Artillery Regiment
-PChem - Pułk Chemiczny - Chemical Regiment (NBC defence)
-PDM - Pułk Drogowo-Mostowy - Road-Bridging Regiment
-PDow - Pułk Dowodzenia - Command Regiment
-PI - Pułk Inżynieryjny - Engineering Regiment
-PPlot - Pułk Przeciwlotniczy - Anti-Aircraft Regiment
-PR - Pułk Rozpoznawczy - Reconnaissance Regiment
-PSpc - Pułk Specjalny - Special Regiment (special forces)[/spoiler]

Main equipment of the land forces: 1005 tanks (128 Leopard 2, 233 PT-91, 644 T-72), ca.1644 armored combat vehicles (1321 BMP-1, 38 BRM-1, 35 M113/M577, ca. 250 BRDM-2), 167 mortars (5 2B9, 15 2B11, 154 other 120mm), 652 barrel-artillery pieces (533 2S1, 111 Vz.77 Dana, 8 2S7), 249 multiple rocket launchers (219 BM-21, 30 RM-70), 4 S-S missiles (9K79), 260 anti-tank missile launchers (129 Malyutka on BRDM-2, 106 Fagot, 18 Konkurs on BRDM-2, 7 Metis), ca. 384 anti-aircraft cannons (ca. 250 ZU-23-2, 44 ZSU-23-4, ca. 90 S-60), 600 man-portable SAM launchers (440 9K32 Striela-2M, 160 Grom), 144 self-propelled SAM launchers (80 2K12 Kub, 64 9K33 Osa), 170 helicopters (43 Mi-24, 35 Mi-8/-17, 56 Mi-2, 36 W-3).

Marynarka Wojenna
- 3 FO (Gdynia) - DOP, DOZOP, 31 DOR, 32 DOR, DOSB, GOR
- 8 FOW (Świnoujście) - 2 DOTM, 12 DT, 8 dplot, 8 bsap
- 9 FOW (Hel) - 11 DŚ, 13 DT, 9 dplot, 43 bsap
- BLMW (Gdynia) - 28 el (Gdynia - An-28, Mi-2, SH-2, W-3), 29 el (Darłowo - Mi-14, W-3), 30 el (Siemirowice - M-28 Bryza)
- 1 MPS (Gdynia), 11 PŁ (Wejherowo), 6 OREl (Gdynia)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BLMW - Brygada Lotnictwa Marynarki Wojennej - Aviation Brigade of the Navy
-bsap - batalion saperów - Engineering Battalion
-dplot - dywizjon przeciwlotniczy - Anti-Aircraft Battalion
-DOP - Dywizjon Okrętów Podwodnych - Submarine Squadron
-DOR - Dywizjon Okrętów Rakietowych - Missile Ship Squadron (strike craft)
-DOSB - Dywizjon Okrętów Szkolno-Badawczych - Training and Research Ship Squadron
-DOTM - Dywizjon Okrętów Transportowo-Minowych - Mine and Transport Ships Squadron (landing ships)
-DOZOP - Dywizjon Okrętów Zwalczania Okrętów Podwodnych - Anti-Submarine Warships Squadron (frigates and corvettes)
-DŚ - Dywizjon Ścigaczy - Chasers Squadron (ASW)
-DT - Dywizjon Trałowców - Minesweepers Squadron
-el - eskadra lotnicza - Aviation Squadron
-FO - Flotylla Okrętów - Warship Flotilla
-FOW - Flotylla Obrony Wybrzeża - Coastal Defence Flotilla
-GOR - Grupa Okrętów Rozpoznawczych - Reconnaissance Ship Group
-MPS - Morski Pułk Strzelców - Marine Rifles Regiment (support unit)
-OREl - Ośrodek Radioelektroniczny - Radioelectronical Centre (SIGINT and Electronic Warfare)
-PŁ - Pułk Łączności - Signals Regiment[/spoiler]

Main equipment of the navy: 5 submarines (1 Pr.877E, 4 Type-207), 2 frigates (FFG-7), 1 corvette (Pr.620), 10 missile strike craft (3 Pr.660, 4 Pr.1241RE, 3 Pr.205), 17 submarine chasers (6 Pr.912M, 11 Pr.918M), 22 mine warfare ships (3 Pr.206FM, 17 Pr.207DM/P/M, 2 Pr.B410), 5 landing ships (Pr.767), 3 landing craft (Pr.716), 1 landing command ship (Pr.776), 1 logistical support ship (Pr.890), 67 auxiliary and special vessels, 48 anti-aircraft cannons (S-60), 13 airplanes (10 M-28 Bryza, 3 An-28), 27 helicopters (4 SH-2, 13 Mi-14, 9 W-3, 1 Mi-2).

Siły Powietrzne
- COP (Warszawa) - 21 ODiN (Warszawa), 22 ODiN (Bydgoszcz), 31 ODiN (Poznań), 32 ODiN (Kraków)
- 1 BLT (Bydgoszcz) - 1 elt (Mińsk Mazowiecki - MiG-29), 8 elt (Mirosławiec - Su-22), 40 elt (Świdwin - Su-22), 41 elt (Malbork - temporarily none)
- 2 BLT (Poznań) - 3 elt (Poznań - temporarily none), 6 elt (Poznań - Su-22), 7 elt (Powidz - Su-22), 10 elt (Łask - temporarily none)
- 36 SPLT (Warszawa - Tu-154, Yak-40, An-28, Mi-8), 13 eltr (Kraków - An-2, An-26, An-28, C-295), 2 eltł (Bydgoszcz - An-2, An-28, Mi-2, Mi-8), 3 eltł (Wrocław - An-2, Mi-2)
- 1 BR OP (Bytom - 9 S-125 battalions), 3 BR OP (Warszawa - 9 S-125 battalions), 61 BR OP (Skwierzyna - 3 2K11 battalions), 78 PR OP (Mrzeżyno - 2 S-125 and 2 S-200 battalions)
- 2 BRt (Bydgoszcz - 3 x brt), 3 BRt (Wrocław - 3 x brt)
- 6 PDow (Śrem), 1 OREl (Grójec)
- WSOSP (Dęblin) - OSL-1 (Dęblin), OSL-2 (Radom)
- CSIL (Oleśnica), CSOPl (Koszalin)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-BLT - Brygada Lotnictwa Taktycznego - Tactical Aviation Brigade
-BR OP - Brygada Rakietowa Obrony Powietrznej - Air Defence Missile Brigade
-BRt - Brygada Radiotechniczna - Radiotechnical (radar) Brigade
-brt - batalion radiotechniczny - Radiotechnical (radar) battalion
-COP - Centrum Operacji Powietrznych - Air Operations Centre
-CSIL - Centrum Szkolenia Inżynieryjno-Lotniczego - Aviational Engineering Training Centre
-CSOPl - Centrum Szkolenia Obrony Przeciwlotniczej - Anti-Aircraft Defence Training Centre (joint land/air force)
-elt - eskadra lotnictwa taktycznego - Tactical Aviation Squadron
-eltł - eskadra lotnictwa transportowo-łącznikowego - Transport-Liaison Aviation Squadron
-eltr - eskadra lotnictwa transportowego - Transport Aviation Squadron
-ODiN - Ośrodek Dowodzenia i Naprowadzania - Command and Guidance Centre
-OREl - Ośrodek Radioelektroniczny - Radioelectronical Centre (SIGINT and Electronic Warfare)
-OSL - Ośrodek Szkolenia Lotniczego - Aviation Training Centre
-PDow - Pułk Dowodzenia - Command Regiment
-PR OP - Pułk Rakietowy Obrony Powietrznej - Air Defence Missile Regiment
-SPLT - Specjalny Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego - Special Transport Aviation Squadron
-WSOSP - Wyższa Szkoła Oficerska Sił Powietrznych - Air Forces' Officers' Higher School[/spoiler]

Main equipment of the air force: 127 combat aircraft (34 MiG-29, 93 Su-22), 150 trainers (113 TS-11, 37 PZL-130), 55 transports (25 An-2, 10 An-26, 8 An-28, 2 C-295, 2 Tu-154, 8 Yak-40), 95 helicopters (1 B412, 65 Mi-2, 11 Mi-8, 18 W-3), 25 SAM battalions (2 S-125M battalions of 4 launchers each, 18 S-125M Newa-SC battalions of 3 launchers each, 2 S-200 battalions of 6 launchers each, 3 2K11 Krug battalions of 9 launchers each).

Although the structure and personnel levels attained around 2004 were supposed to last for some time, unsurprisingly they did not and soon further reductions begun. This time largely related to end of the draft in 2009 and accompanying reduction of peacetime army to 100.000. On the positive side, after years of waiting air force received 48 F-16 fighters and increased its transport capabilities with deliveries of C-295 and C-130 transport aircraft (although Herculeses are very much second-hand).

Year 2010 was marked by the Smoleńsk tragedy (10 April), when on the way to the events commemorating 70th anniversary of the Katyń massacre, Tu-154 from the 36 SPLT crashed on approach to landing killing all 96 onboard, including President of the Republic of Poland Lech Kaczyński and his wife Maria, last President-in-Exile Ryszard Kaczorowski, all top military chiefs (chief of the general staff, chiefs of army, navy, air force, special forces, joint operational command and of the Warsaw garrison), governor of the National Bank of Poland, 18 members of parliament (including 3 deputy speakers of both houses), numerous other dignitaries as well as relatives of the victims of the 1940 massacre.

2011 saw next reorganization, this time aimed at streamlining of the command structure. Air defence missile units were merged into single brigade and the missile battalions converted from the legacy structure of single fire battery and radiotechnical battery into new with 3 operational batteries combining both launchers and command assets (as is typical for most SAM systems). Also, aviation brigades were renamed as wings (another americanism) and, more awkwardly, squadrons were merged with airbases (creating in effect something like mini-regiments of the past era) - that last part of the refform als being put to effect in the naval and army aviation (with exception of the air units of 25 BKPow.).

In 2014 another reorganization occured, but one that changed relatively little in regards to operational units themselves, and completely overhauled the command structure. Previously there was a general staff on top of military hierarchy and four services (land forces, navy, air forces and special forces) plus inspectorate of support (logistics, health service etc.) and joint operational command (mostly geared for overseas operations) immediately below. Under new structure there are nominally just three entities left: general staff and two new - and very awkwardly named - ones: Dowództwo Generalne Rodzajów Sił Zbrojnych (DGRSZ - General Command of the Types of Armed Forces - meaning "services' general command") and Dowództwo Operacyjne Rodzajów Sił Zbrojnych (DORSZ - Operational Command of the Types of Armed Forces - meaning "forces' operational command"). The Sztab Generalny (SG WP, General Staff) was left only with overall planning role and it's head remained "symbolic" head of the military - but with no actual command role nor even control and inspection function. DGRSZ is responsible for forces preparation in peacetime, their training and equipment, while DORSZ is responsible for their actual employment in the field (being in essence something like US Unified Combatant Command) - be it in country or abroad. While in theory everything may looks nice, the reform proved to be also very controversial. Among the reasons is that one of its purposes was rectifying the situation where there is "too many chiefs and too few indians" (indeed , in mid-1980s polish armed forces had 400.000 men under arms and some 120 generals, and around 2010 they had 100.000 men under arms but still some 120 generals), but in reality, for example while there previously were four service chiefs (land, sea, air and SF), there are now eight - four sets both at DORSZ and DGRSZ (only reduced from 3-star to 2-star rank), which also led to diffusion of responsibility (while at some other times overlap of the responsibility) and serious issues with coordination. Another controversial issue is reduction of the general staff to merely theoretical role (from the command organ it used to be), which leads to questions about coordination of eventual defense effort where there are two equal commands and third (the SG WP) which is theoretically above them, can't actually give them any orders. Generally the reform is a brainchild of the then-national security adviser to (then-) president, gen. Stanisław Koziej - theoretician, well connected politically but known for rather awkward ideas (like proposing at one time in the past to liquidate all ground based early warning radars because NATO's E-3 AWACS aircraft have in theory enough range to cover whole Poland so - in general's opinion - could do it instead, or more recently - around 2013 - when it was considered wether to retire Su-22's and buy something new or to extend their lives a bit - to retire them quickly and buy UCAV's instead - just that he didn't mean Predators or anything similar but rather X-45, conveniently overlooking that none are actually in service yet), and who is also known for something akin to personal vendetta against SG WP, which he tended to publicly accuse of any possible and impossible wrongs related to state of Polish military (there are rumors that it's because he was kicked out with a bang from the SG WP back in 1981).

Central command support units
- 9 BWD (Białobrzegi), BWD WKP-W (Szczecin), 1 OREl (Grójec), 2 OREl (Przasnysz), 6 OREl (Gdynia)
- IWSZ (Warszawa) - 1 BLog (Bydgoszcz), 10 BLog (Opole), 1 RBLog (Wałcz), 2 RBLog (Warszawa), 3 RBLog (Kraków), 4 RBLog (Wrocław)
Land forces
- 11 DKPc (Żagań) - 10 BKPc (Świętoszów), 34 BKPc (Żagań), 17 BZ (Międzyrzecz), 23 PA (Bolesławiec), 4 PPlot (Czerwieńsk), 11 bd (Żagań)
- 12 DZ (Szczecin) - 2 BZ (Budowo), 12 BZ (Szczecin), 7 BOW (Słupsk), 5 PA (Sulechów), 8 PPlot (Koszalin), 12 bd (Szczecin)
- 16 DZ (Elbląg) - 1 BPc (Wesoła), 9 BKPc (Braniewo), 15 BZ (Giżycko), 20 BZ (Bartoszyce), 11 PA (Węgorzewo), 15 PPlot (Gołdap), 16 bd (Elbląg)
- 1 BLWL (Inowrocław) - 49 BL (Pruszcz Gdański - Mi-24, Mi-2, to be disbanded 2016), 56 BL (Inowrocław - Mi-24, Mi-2, W-3), drp (Mirosławiec - Aeronautics Orbiter UAV)
- 25 BKPow (Tomaszów Mazowiecki) - 1 bkpow (Łęczyca), 7 bkpow (Tomaszów Mazowiecki), 7 dl (Nowy Glinnik - W-3), 37 dl (Łęczyca - Mi-8/-17), 25 bd (Tomaszów Mazowiecki)
- 6 BPD (Kraków), 21 BSP (Rzeszów), 25 BKPow (Tomaszów Mazowiecki), BWn (Lublin), 2 PR (Hrubieszów), 9 PR (Lidzbark Warmiński), 18 PR (Białystok)
- 1 PS (Brzeg), 2 PS (Kazuń), 2 PI (Inowrocław), 5 PI (Szczecin), 4 PChem (Brodnica), 5 PChem (Tarnowskie Góry)
Special forces
- JW GROM (Warszawa), JW AGAT (Gliwice), JW Formoza (Gdynia), JWK (Lubliniec), JW Nil (Kraków)
Navy
- 3 FO (Gdynia) - DOB, DOP, DOW, GOR, NDR, 9 dplot, 43 bsap
- 8 FOW (Świnoujście) - 2 DOTM, 12 DT, 13 DT (Gdynia), 8 dplot, 8 bsap
- BLMW (Gdynia) - 43 BL (Gdynia - M-28, SH-2, Mi-17, W-3), 44 BL (Siemirowice - M-28, Mi-14, W-3)
Air forces
- 1 SLT (Świdwin) - 21 BLT (Świdwin - Su-22), 22 BLT (Malbork - MiG-29), 23 BLT (Mińsk Mazowiecki - MiG-29)
- 2 SLT (Poznań) - 31 BLT (Poznań - F-16), 32 BLT (Łask - F-16)
- 3 SLTr (Powidz) - 1 BLTr (Warszawa - Mi-8/-17, W-3), 2 BLTr (Kraków - C-295, M-28), 33 BLTr (Powidz - C-130, M-28, W-3, Mi-17, Mi-24), 1 GPR (Świdwin - W-3), 2 GPR (Mińsk Mazowiecki - W-3), 3 GPR (Krakow - Mi-8/17)
- 4 SLSzk (Dęblin) - 41 BLSzk (Dęblin - TS-11, SW-4, Mi-2), 42 BLSzk (Radom - PZL-130, M-28)
- 3 BRt (Wrocław) - 3 brt (Sandomierz), 8 brt (Lipowiec), 31 brt (Wrocław), 34 brt (Chojnice)
- 3 BR OP (Sochaczew) - 32 dr op (Olszewnica Stara), 33 dr op (Gdynia), 34 dr op (Bytom), 35 dr op (Skwierzyna), 36 dr op (Mrzeżyno), 37 dr op (Sochaczew)

Abbreviations:
[spoiler=]-bd - batalion dowodzenia - command battalion
-BKPc - Brygada Kawalerii Pancernej - Armored Cavalry Brigade (tank)
-BKPow - Brygada Kawalerii Powietrznej - Air Cavalry Brigade
-bkpow - batalion kawalerii powietrznej - Air Cavalry Battalion
-BL - Baza Lotnicza - Air Base
-BLMW - Brygada Lotnictwa Marynarki Wojennej - Naval Aviation Brigade
-BLog - Brygada Logistyczna - Logistics Brigade
-BLSzk - Baza Lotnictwa Szkolnego - Training Aviation Base
-BLT - Baza Lotnictwa Taktycznego - Tactical Aviation Base
-BLTr - Baza Lotnictwa Transportowego - Transport Aviation Base
-BLWL - Brygada Lotnictwa Wojsk Lądowych - Land Forces Aviation Brigade
-BOW - Brygada Obrony Wybrzeża - Coastal Defence Brigade (mechanized)
-BPc - Brygada Pancerna - Armored Brigade
-BPD - Brygada Powietrznodesantowa - Airborne Brigade
-BR OP - Brygada Rakietowa Obrony Powietrznej - Missile Brigade of the Air Defence
-BRt - Brygada Radiotechniczna - Radiotechnical (radar) Brigade
-brt - batalion radiotechniczny - radiotechnical (radar) battalion
-bsap - batalion saperów - Engineers Battalion
-BSP - Brygada Strzelców Podhalańskich - Podhale Rifles Brigade
-BWD - Brygada Wsparcia Dowodzenia - Command Support Brigade
-BWD WKP-W - Brygada Wsparcia Dowodzenia Wielonarodowego Korpusu Północno-Wschodniego - Command Support Brigade of the Multinational Corps North-East
-BWn - Brygada Wielonarodowa - Multinational Brigade
-BZ - Brygada Zmechanizowana - Mechanized Brigade
-DKPc - Dywizja Kawalerii Pancernej - Armored Cavalry Division (tank division)
-dl - dywizjon lotniczy - Aviational Battalion
-DOB - Dywizjon Okrętów Bojowych - Combat Ships Squadron
-DOP - Dywizjon Okrętów Podwodnych - Submarine Squadron
-DOTM - Dywizjon Okrętów Transportowo-Minowych - Mine and Transport Ships Squadron (landing ships)
-DOW - Dywizjon Okrętów Wsparcia - Support Ship Squadron
-dplot - dywizjon przeciwlotniczy - Anti-Aircraft Battalion
-dr op - dywizjon rakietowy obrony powietrznej - Missile Battalion of the Air Defence
-drp - dywizjon rozpoznania powietrznego - Aerial Reconnaissance Battalion (UAV)
-DT - Dywizjon Trałowców - Minesweepers Squadron
-DZ - Dywizja Zmechanizowana - Mechanized Division
-FO - Flotylla Okrętów - Warship Flotilla
-FOW - Flotylla Obrony Wybrzeża - Coastal Defence Flotilla
-GOR - Grupa Okrętów Rozpoznawczych - Reconnaissance Ships Group
-GPR - Grupa Poszukiwawczo-Ratownicza - SAR Group (detachment)
-IWSZ - Inspektorat Wsparcia Sił Zbrojnych - Inspectorate of Support (troops) of the Armed Forces (logistics etc.)
-JW AGAT - Jednostka Wojskowa AGAT - Military Unit "AGAT"
-JW Formoza - Jednostka Wojskowa Formoza - Military Unit "Formoza" (Formosa)
-JW GROM - Jednostka Wojskowa GROM - Military Unit "GROM" (Thunder)
-JWK - Jednostka Wojskowa Komandosów - Commando Military Unit
-JW Nil - Jednostka Wojskowa Nil - Military Unit "Nil"
-NDR - Nadbrzeżny Dywizjon Rakietowy - Coastal Missile Battalion
-OREl - Ośrodek Radioelektroniczny - Radioelectronical Centre (SIGINT and Electronic Warfare)
-PA - Pułk Artylerii - Artillery Regiment
-PChem - Pułk Chemiczny - Chemical Regiment (NBC defence)
-PI - Pułk Inżynieryjny - Engineering Regiment
-PPlot - Pułk Przeciwlotniczy - Anti-Aircraft Regiment
-PR - Pułk Rozpoznawczy - Reconnaissance Regiment
-PS - Pułk Saperów - (combat) Engineering Regiment
-RBLog - Regionalna Baza Logistyczna - Regional Logistics Base
-SLSzk - Skrzydło Lotnictwa Szkolnego - Training Aviation Wing
-SLT - Skrzydło Lotnictwa Taktycznego - Tactical Aviation Wing
-SLTr - Skrzydło Lotnictwa Transportowego - Transport Aviation Wing[/spoiler]

Currently Polish land forces have 638 tanks (247 Leopard 2, 232 PT-91, 159 T-72), ca. 1938 infantry fighting vehicles (670 KTO Rosomak, 1268 BMP-1), ca. 278 armored reconnaissance vehicles (38 BRM-1, ca. 240 BRDM-2), 463 barrel artillery pieces (342 2S1, 111 Vz.77 Dana, 8 AHS Krab), ca. 105 multiple rocket launchers (ca. 75 WR-40 Langusta and/or BM-21, 30 RM-70), 28 self-propelled anti-anti aircraft guns (ZSU-23-4, additionaly there is large number of ZU-23-2 - ca. 400?), 84 self-propelled SAM launchers (20 2K12 Kub, 64 9K33 Osa), 151 helicopters (31 Mi-24, 29 Mi-8/-17, 48 Mi-2, 43 W-3).
Polish navy has 5 submarines (1 Pr.877E, 4 Type-207), 2 frigates (FFG-7), 1 corvette (Pr.620), 3 strike craft (Pr.660), 3 minehunters (Pr.206FM), 17 minesweepers (Pr.207), 5 landing ships (Pr.767), 1 logistics support vessel (Pr.890), 14 airplanes (10 M-28 Bryza, 4 M-28), 28 helicopters (4 SH-2, 9 Mi-14, 2 Mi-8/-17, 4 Mi-2, 9 W-3), 6 coastal missile launchers (NSM), 48 anti-aircraft guns (S-60).
Polish air forces have 98 combat aircraft (48 F-16, 32 MiG-29, 18 Su-22), 58 trainers (30 TS-11, 28 PZL-130), 46 transports (25 M-28, 16 C-295, 5 C-130), ca. 113 helicopters (24 SW-4, 20 W-3, 4 Mi-24 for SF operations, ca. 15 Mi-8/-17, ca. 50 Mi-2), 57 heavy SAM launchers (51 or 17 batteries of S-125 Newa-SC and 6 or 1 battery of S-200).

In 2012 previous government announced a large 10-year military modernization program worth some 130 billion PLN (around 40 billion USD). Planned purchases include, among others, new submarines, heavy SAM's, utility and combat helicopters as well as advanced trainers (8 M-346's are already ordered). Current government plans, in view of the situation on the Ukraine and elsewhere to also increase personnel strength of the armed forces to 120.000 or even 150.000, not mentioning plans to make further ammendments to command structure (in order to repair the shortcomings of the 2014 reform - at the moment, according to leaks from serious but unnamed sources, most likely option is basically a return to previous structure). Future will show how all of it will impact Polish military aviation.


4) Aviation of the internal security services

Until the end of the 1990s aviation of the security services (grouped under Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego - MBP, Ministry of Public Security - until 1954, then Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych - MSW, Ministry of Internal Affairs - until 1997, Ministerstwo Spraw Wewnętrznych i Administracji - MSWiA, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration - between 1997 and 2011, then again MSW between 2011 and 2015, and now again MSWiA) was centralized in the single formation serving whole department and run by internal troops.

In March 1945 formation of the Korpus Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego (KBW, Internal Security Corps) has begun with the task of suppressing anti-communist resistance activities. To help that task the 8 Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Transportowego with Po-2 biplanes was attached to it, but very soon after it was transferred to the Oddział Lotnictwa Cywilnego. Next air unit in the KBW (and MBP) appeared in December 1945, when 103 Eskadra Lotnictwa Transportowego was transferred to MBP and was renamed 9 Samodzielna Eskadra Łącznikowa KBW (9 SEŁ KBW - 9 Autonomous Liaison Squadron of the Internal Security Corps). Initially it was equipped with ubiquitous Po-2's, but soon they were joined by several ex-German aircraft (including Bf-108, Fi-156 and Fw-58) as well as Li-2 and/or C-47. In the late 1940s 9 SEŁ, like whole KBW, participated in fighting the armed opposition, and in 1949 was renamed into Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Łącznikowego KBW (Autonomous Liaison Aviation Squadron of the ISC). In later years it gradually acquired newer types of equipment, like Yak-12, An-2 as well as helicotpers (since late 1950s) - Mi-1/SM-1, SM-2 and Mi-4, while in late 1960 and early 1970s Mi-2 and Mi-8 begun to appear.

In 1965 majority of the KBW elements were transferred from MSW to Ministerstwo Obrony Narodowej (MON, Ministry of National Defence) and renamed there Wojska Obrony Wewnętrznej (WOW, Internal Defence Troops), while the rest (basically a "palace guard" of main government installations, signals units supporting top national leadership and the like) that remained in MSW was renamed Nadwiślańskie Jednostki Wojskowe MSW (NJW MSW, Vistula Military Units of the Ministry of Internal Affairs). Air unit was retained as part of NJW MSW, in the 1965 renamed Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Transportowego i Łącznikowego MSW (Autonomous Transport and Liaison Aviation Squadron), in 1968 Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Transportowo-Łącznikowego MSW (Autonomous Transport-Liaison Aviation Squadron) and in 1974 it was englarged to full regiment, named 103 Pułk Lotniczy NJW MSW (103 Aviation Regiment of the...). At the same time the regiment, begun routinely supporting Milicja Obywatelska (MO, Citizen's Militia - police), with part of it's helicopters being painted in police colors.

Between 1958 and 1965 there was for a while also a second air unit (also of the military character) in the MSW, namely Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Rozpoznawczego WOP (SELR WOP, Autonomous Reconnaissance Aviation Squadron of the Boder Protection Troops) with Yak-12, Li-2, An-2W and helicopters. When in 1965 WOP were also transferred to MON, the squadron left with them. In 1972 WOP returned to MSW, but by this time the SELR WOP no longer existed (it was disbanded in 1970).

From the 1965 103 PL NJW MSW supported activities of the all services that were part of the MSW, so besides it's parent service it also aided the MO, WOP, Państwowa Straż Pożarna (PSP, State Fire Guard), and when needed also Służba Bezpieczeństwa (SB, Security Service). Other than that, helicopters of 103 PL NJW MSW were used for more "civilian" purposes: for aerial filming of cinema and television movies as well as broadcasts from mass events (not mentioning "playing" in movies), sky cranes, transport of foreign VIP guests and so on. From late 1960s and in 1970s the squadron's equipment was replaced with Mi-2 and Mi-8 helicopters, joined in late 1980s by W-3 Sokół and M-20 Mewa aircraft and in 1991 by 2 B206 JetRangers, reaching a fleet size of around 39 helicopters in 1991 (22 Mi-8/-17, 12 Mi-2, 4 W-3, 2 B206).

In the mid 1990s it was decided that NJW MSW will be eventually disbanded. In regard to air units, it was planned that all three main uniformed services within MSW/MSWiA (Policja - Police, Państwowa Straż Pożarna, Straż Graniczna - SG, Border Guard) will have their own air elements. Create of separate Police aviation begun already 1996, followed around the same time by SG (PSP never got it's air unit), though whole process lasted until 2000 when 103 PL NJW MSWiA was officialy disbanded and it's aircraft transferred to Police, Border Guard and Army.

Currently :
Lotnictwo Policji (LP, Aviation of the Police) has 6 detachments in its subordination with B206, B412, Mi-2, Mi-8, Kania and W-3 helicopters.
Biuro Lotnictwa Straży Granicznej (BL SG, Aviation Bureau of the Border Guard) has 5 aviational detachments in its subordination with M-20, M-28, Wilga 2000 and Stemme ASP S15 airplanes (those last ones are technically speaking motogliders, but are clased as airplanes and are designed to be also operated as drones) and Kania and Sokół helicopters, as well as number of small drones.


5) Air Ambulance services

Before the war Poland had a small but quite efficient air ambulance service operated by military aviation on behalf of public health service. Post-war economical constraints delayed recreation of similar service and although several aircraft were used for that purpose since late 1940s (usually under the aegis of Liga Lotnicza - see below), only in 1955 Ministerstwo Zdrowia i Opieki Społecznej (Ministry of Health and Social Assistance) created Zespół Lotnictwa Sanitarnego (ZLS, Medical Aviation Group), composed of Centralny ZLS (Central Medical Aviation Group) in Warsaw and 15 regional detachments. Initially they used air ambulance version of CSS-13 (license-built Po-2), gradually replaced by more suitable aircraft (Yak-12, PZL-101, An-2, Ae-45/-145, L-200 Morava, L-410 Turbolet) and from 1960s also helicopters (initially Mi-1/SM-1 and SM-2, later Mi-2, which in 1980s and 1990s were mainstay of the fleet). In 1995 LPR had 69 helicopters and airplanes including 37 Mi-2, 1 W-3, 8 An-2, 9 Yak-12, 7 L-200, 3 L-410, 3 M-20 and 1 PZL-101. In 2000 ZLS was replaced by Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe (LPR, Air Ambulance) - or more formally Samodzielny Publiczny Zakład Opieki Zdrowotnej Lotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe (SP ZOZ LPR - Autonomous Public Health Care Establishment Air Ambulance) with 17 local detachments. Eventually the vintage fleet was also replaced by 23 EC-135 helicopters and 2 Piaggio P.180 Avanti II aircraft (for a time being also single Agusta A-109).

Besides the ZLS/LPR, air ambulance, as well as SAR services in Poland are conducted by one more service, namely Tatrzańskie Ochotnicze Pogotowie Ratunkowe (TOPR, Tatra Volunteer Search and Rescue) in Tatra mountains. For a long period they used helicopters detached from Kraków ZLS, but because such arrangement had certain practical limitations, in 1992 TOPR got its own helicopter, the PZL W-3 Sokół. Over time it used total of 5 of them (or four-and-a-half), but only one at a time: first was loaned from manufacturer, second was TOPR-owned but crashed in 1994, third was loaned from the NJW MSW, fourth was again TOPR-owned and was damaged beyond repair during emergency landing in 2003 while fifth was built using numerous elements from the fourth one.


6) Sports aviation

Shortly after the end of the war, pre-war sports aviation activists begun recreating the aeroclub structures, both locally and on central level, by (re-)creation of Aeroklub Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (ARP, Aeroclub of the Republic of Poland) in October 1945. Few months later, in January 1946 a Liga Lotnicza (LL, Aviational League) was formed as successor to pre-war Liga Obrony Powietrznej i Przeciwgazowej (LOPP, League of Anti-Air and Anti-Gas Defence - initially independent but eventually turned into state-sponsored and operated entity aimed in promotion of aviation sports and related activities. Like the LOPP before the war, LL quickly turned from relatively independent organization into state-run supervisory entity over aeroclub, enforcing realization of the state's goals (with emphasis on military-related training). In 1947-1948 ARP was reorganized into "association of individuals", thereby losing its main property (aircraft and installations) to the LL and eventually encouraged to merge into LL, losing it's autonomy.

Due to widespread destruction caused by war, initially ARP operated in extremely difficult material conditions. In the first months of existence it had literally just several powered aircraft (ex-German). Somewhat better situation was with gliders and although most of the ex-German gliders needed some repairs, around 740 (plus literally several pre-1939 Polish ones) of them were eventually registered and used in training and sports. From 1946 situation began to improve also with powered aircraft with transfer of a number of Polikarpov Po-2's from the military and purchase of 100 Piper Cubs from US surplus. Soon also local factories started to deliver both airplanes and gliders of domestic design and license-built. In the late 1940s and early 1950s priority for LL was training of future military pilots. A sign of tightening links with the military was incorporation of LL in 1953 into Liga Przyjaciół Żołnierza (LPŻ, League of Soldiers' Friends) modeled on Soviet DOSAAF.

Post-1956 thaw allowed re-creation of the aeroclub separate from LPŻ, now as Aeroklub Polskiej Rzeczypospolitej Ludowej (APRL, Aeroclub of the People's Republic of Poland). Poland, thanks to great effort of aeroclub cadres and high-quality equipment of domestic design and manufacture, become major power in aviational sports, especially in gliding where representatives from Poland were (and still are) almost always finishing on medal-awarded places. That said, although APRL, unlike LL, was no longer merely a factory of future military pilots, initial training of these was still a major part of its activities, under the Lotnicze Przysposobienie Wojskowe (LPW, Aviational Military Preparation) program. Yet there was increasing acceptance of the authorities of aeroclubs as a place of recreational flying by individuals.

Despite theat increasing acceptance ,though, that recreational flying had to take place within the framework of aeroclubs status activities and at least nominally pretend to be sports-related (in sense of "competitive sports"). Private ownership of aircraft, although not technically forbidden, was extremely problematic to fulfill, since no factory would sell a new airplane to individual citizen, while building of amateur designs was, at least until late 1960s actively discouraged by authorities: under stalinism by all means (being viewed as potential attempt to escape beyond the Iron Curtain and therefore a treason), later generally by bureaucratic means, mounting difficulties with obtaining elements, registration and certification and so on (although several individuals did managed to build and fly their planes back then and at least two managed to obtain second-hand airplane from aeroclub). 1970s and 1980s saw gradual relaxation of that approach and a number of amateur planes were made, as well as some motogliders based on second-hand (ex-aeroclub) gliders modified by their new owners.

Political changes after 1989 altered political, economical and social conditions that influenced activities of aeroclub. On the formal leve, in 1990 name of APRL chaned to Aeroklub Polski (AP, Aeroclub of Poland) and later it also evolved from unified structure into association of local aeroclubs. Another highly significant change was increase in private ownership of aircraft - both purchased domestically (either as new or second-hand from aeroclub or other organizations) and imported individually from abroad (like ubiquitous Cessnas and Pipers).
On 1 January 2015 Rejestr Cywilnych Statków Powietrznych (RCSP, Registry of Civilian Air Vehicles) contained 2407 vehicles, including 1218 airplanes, 180 helicopters, 810 gliders, 21 motogliders, 177 balloons and 1 airship, although these numbers include also aircraft belonging to airlines, state services (police, border guard, air ambulance) etc.


7) Agricultural and industrial services aviation

First experiments with use of aircraft to crop-dusting were conducted in Poland already in 1920s, using military aircraft, but for various reasons they didn't proceed to more widespread use. After the was Polish agriculture and forestry ware suffering due to various pests attacking crops and tress. To fight these, Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT (PLL LOT - LOT Polish Airlines) were given the task to operate crop-dusting effort, initially with Li-2 airliners (note, that the very same airplanes that were used to drop toxic DDT - locally known as Azotox - during the summer, were also used to transport passengers for the rest of the year) and later also with modified CSS-13 and Piper Cub light airplanes. That part of the LOT's activity was already described in the initial chapter of this thread, dedicated to the airline. On a note, it should be mentioned that probably the most serious - and certainly most heavily used for propaganda - of these pests was invasion of colorado potato beetle, making heavy damage to potato crops. Both Poland, East Germany and Czechoslovakia waged a "war" against the beetle, which was supposedly air-dropped by the CIA as a biological warfare waged by evil imperialists against peace loving countries of people's democracy.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_again ... ato_beetle

In 1955 crop-dusting duties were transferred from LOT to LL and subsequently to APRL, or more specifically it's subordinate Przedsiębiorstwo Usług Lotniczych (PUL, Aviational Services Enterprise), which operated not only in Poland, but also was often contracted to serve abroad, including Bulgaria, Egypt and Sudan. In 1972 crop-dusting was transferred again, this time from APRL to Zakład Usług Agrolotniczych (ZUA, Agroaviational Services Establishment), a subsidiary of PZL Warszawa-Okęcie. In 1975 it was joined by Zakład Eksploatacji Usług Śmigłowcowych (ZEUH, Helicopter Services Exploatation Establishment), a subsidiary of PZL Świdnik. All of it was supported by strong industrial effort, with Poland becoming one of the World's biggest manufacturers of crop-dusting aircraft and helicopters (number of aircraft and helicopters either purpose-designed for crop-dusting or equipped to it produced in Poland is close to 15.000). 1970s and 1980s were the golden era of Polish agricultural aviation, with some 300 airplanes and helicopters used in national economy and numerous more Polish owned and operated were serving on foreign contracts in 20 other countries from Scandinavia to Africa and even South America. Unfortunately economical changes post-1989 put end to it and now Polish agricultural aviation is only a shadow of its former self.

It should be noted, that besides the services for the agriculture, airplanes and helicopters of ZUA and ZEUH (and more currently also of other entities) were also used, in organized manner since 1984 (but on smaller, largely ad hoc basis it was done already before) for firefighting, mainly related to forest fires. M-18 Dromader planes were and are most widely used for it, but An-2 and Mi-2 were/are also quite widespread. Firefighting servieces (done also with W-3 Sokół) were also contracted abroad, including to Spain, Portugal and Chile.

Finally, the mention should be made about helicopter crane services in Poland. Experiments with it were made already in 1950s and 1960s, but only in 1970s it was made on regular basis. In 1969 newly-delivered Mi-8's from the air force were used as flying cranes, and in 1973 the Zespół Śmigłowcowy Robot Budowlano-Montażowych Instal (ZŚRBM Instal - Helicopter Group of Construction-Assembly Works) was established, initially using Mi-8's loaned from the military and later its own, joined from 1974 by Mi-6 heavy helicopters (initially two, in 1979 joined by third). In mid-1980s they were, however, transferred to military aviation.

Main sources:
Ginowicz Jan, Kuśmierek Zbigniew, Peikert Bronisław, Stachula Adolf, Walkowiak Kazimierz, 60 lat Wojsk Radiotechnicznych. Zarys historii, Warszawa 2011.
Glass Andrzej et al., Konstrukcje lotnicze Polski Ludowej, Warszawa 1965.
Hypki Tomasz, W perspektywie XXI wieku, Skrzydlata Polska, 10/1998.
Kmiecik Tadeusz, Polskie lotnictwo wojskowe 1945-1962, Warszawa 2002.
Kocent-Zieliński Edward, Łódzkie samoloty inżyniera Sołtyka, Warszawa 2010.
Konopka Lech, Polskie lotnictwo wojskowe 1990-2003, Warszawa 2003.
Królikiewicz Tadeusz, Polski samolot i barwa, Warszawa 1981.
Krzemiński Czesław, Polskie lotnictwo wojskowe 1945-1980. Zarys dziejów, Warszawa 1989.
Leszczyński Wojciech, Wojsko Polskie 2004. Na równi pochyłej, Nowa Technika Wojskowa, 5/2004.
Liwiński Jan, Jak to drzewiej bywało. Czyli czas wielkich zakupów i tysięcy samolotów z biało-czerwoną szachownicą, Skrzydlata Polska, 11/1996.
Liwiński Jan, Uzbrojenie Polskiego Lotnictwa Wojskowego w latach 1961-2000, Lotnictwo, 6/2000.
Morgała Andrzej, Polskie samoloty wojskowe 1939-1945, Warszawa 1978.
Morgała Andrzej, Polskie samoloty wojskowe 1945-1980, Warszawa 1981.
Piotrowski Paweł, Wojsko Polskie w czasie wojny koreańskiej, Nowa Technika Wojskowa, 1/1998.
Piotrowski Paweł, System obrony powietrznej Polski w latach 1945-58. "Era klasyczna", Nowa Technika Wojskowa, 8/1998.
Struktury organizacyjne lotnictwa Sił Zbrojnych RP, Skrzydlata Polska, 10/1998.
http://www.jednostki-wojskowe.pl/
http://www.olesnica.vot.pl/pokazy/1957.html
http://www.polot.net/
http://www.samolotypolskie.pl/
http://www.serwis-militarny.net/
http://www.wikipedia.org/
http://www.wria.pl/

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Post subject: Re: Polish WingsPosted: October 7th, 2016, 10:25 pm
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1943-1949 Aircraft

Military Trainers

The very first aircraft of the Polish air forces in the Soviet Union were Yakovlev UT-2 trainers, 5 of which were delivered to the 1 Samodzielna Eskadra Myśliwska (1 SEM, 1 Autonomous Fighter Squadron) in July 1943. Eventually their number greatly increased and they were used in Polish training units, as well as in combat units for liaison purposes. In August 1945 Polish aviation had 55 of these aircraft and used them as trainers until 1951, while their service life as liaisons laster until around mid-1950s.

Poland, Yakovlev UT-2 (Jakowlew UT-2)
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Venerable Polikarpov Po-2 was the most numerous aircraft of the Polish military aviation in the final stages of war and first decade afterwards. When the war ended, some 350 were in use, in training, night bomber (ca.40), night artillery observation (5), liaison, transport and medical evacuation (12) variants. They were used for training of Polish aviators in Soviet flight schools and one of these aircraft in passenger version, used by commander of 1 Korpus Polskich Sił Zbrojnych w ZSRR, gen. Zygmunt Berling, was the first communications aircraft of the Polish air forces in the USSR. In April-May 1945 they were used by practically every air unit - either as their main equipment (in transport/communications units) or (in combat regiments) as auxiliary communications aircraft. They were also the first aircraft of the re-created airlines (see page 5 of this thread), and after the war were used extensively by aeroclubs. In late 1940s it was decided to build Po-2's in Poland under license, as CSS-13 in several versions, including "basic" trainer/utility/liaison aircraft, night bomber, medical evacuation (S-13), and a number were converted into crop-dusters and one was rebuilt with large canopy for passenger transport. Total of 543 CSS-13 were built, including 52 S-13 (not counting prototype converted from "standard" airplane). Some of these were exported to Romania, Hungary, East Germany and North Korea.

Poland, Polikarpov U-2/Po-2, CSS-13 (Polikarpow U-2/Po-2)
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Part of the training of Polish fighter pilots at 1 Krasnoznamennaya Kachenskaya Voyennaya Avia-Shkola in Krasny Kut was done on UTI-4 aircraft, which were dual-control version of Polikarpov I-16 fighters. Later 2 such aircraft were used in units of Polish air force - one from November 1944 by 15 Samodzielny Pułk Lotniczy and one by headquarters of 4 Mieszana Dywizja Lotnicza. Later they were transferred to air force schools, though their use there was rather brief.
Additionaly one I-16 fighter was used by 1 Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego between March and June 1944.

Poland, Polikarpov UTI-4 (I-16, Polikarpow UTI-4)
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Tupolev USB was a trainer version of SB/SB-2 bomber with bombardier's cockpit replaced with second, open, pilot's cockpit for instructor. Polish bomber pilots were trained on these aircraft in 1944-1945 at Engelskoye Voenno-Vozdushnye Aviatsionnoye Uchilishche, where they were used at intermediate stage between R-5 and Pe-2 (in training versions). After the war 6 such aircraft (3 each of model I with M100 engine and model II with M103 engine) at Oficerska Szkoła Lotnicza in Dęblin until 1949.

Poland, Tupolev ANT-40 SB-2 USB (Tupolew ANT-40/SB-2/USB)
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In order to fill the demand for an advanced/combat trainer, the Yakovlev Yak-11 (itself a derivative of the Yak-3 fighter) was ordered in 1947, with deliveries commencing in 1949. Total of ca. 192 aircraft were delivered in several batches, both original Soviet Yak's and Czechoslovak Let C-11's. Main users were flying schools at Dęblin and Radom, but a number of these aircraft were also attached to combat units for proficiency and refresher training (as well as for communications flights), as well as to the artillery observation units as FAC aircraft. From 1958 they were gradually replaced in training units by TS-8 Bies of domestic design, therefore remaining in use mostly in front-line units until 1966.

Poland, Yakovlev Yak-11 (Jakowlew Jak-11)
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Poland's first post-war aircraft built in large numbers was LWD Junak ('brave young man') trainer. It was created in response to demand from the air force for a replacement of Polikarpov Po-2 and Yakovlev UT-2 trainers. Prototype (Junak 1), was first flown in 1948 and although trials were generally successful, it was decided to make some significant changes to the design, that led to Junak 2, first flown in 1949 and produced in series of 105 between 1951-1953. Junak 2's were used in Dęblin and Radom flight schools until around 1954-1955 when they were gradually transferred to aero-clubs. Introduction of the modern jets with nose-wheel undercarriage created a demand for trainer with similar arrangement, leading to creation of Junak 3, first flown in 1953 and produced 1954-1956 in series of 146. They were used in Dęblin and Radom until early 1960s, when they were replaced by TS-8 Bies and transferred to aero-clubs, which used them until 1972. Additionaly, in 1961 single Junak 2 was used by Instytut Lotnictwa for trials of - ultimately unsuccessful - WN-6B engine, intended for M-4 Tarpan and PZL-104 Wilga.

Poland, LWD Junak
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In addition to these types, in the 1944-1945 period, future Polish bomber pilots were trained on Polikarpov R-5 light bombers in -Engelskoye Voenno-Vozdushnye Aviatsionnoye Uchilishche imenii Geroya Sovetskogo Soyuza - Marii Mariny Rasskovoy at Engels. Unfortunately I couldn't find any photos of these particular aircraft nor even of any random R-5 from that school (although it may be assumed that they carried standard colors and markings).


Combat Aircraft

First combat aircraft of the Soviet-supported Polish air force was Yakovlev Yak-1, which was in the 1943-1945 period the main equipment of the 1 Samodzielna Eskadra Myśliwska and later 1 Pułk Lotnictwa Myśliwskiego "Warszawa". First 3 aircraft were delivered in early September 1943 with further aircraft arriving soon later (reaching average number of 15). After the squadron was upgraded to regiment status, the number of aircraft rose to over 40. Additionaly smaller numbers of Yak-1's were used by other units - 9 PLM and 10 PLM used them briefly in Autumn 1944 and some others were distributed to HQ's of air divisions, replacement units etc., peaking at 79 aircraft in October 1944, after which they were being increasingly replaced by Yak-9's. When the war ended, majority of surviving Yak-1's were concentrated at Dęblin OSL until eventually retired in early 1946.

Poland, Yakovlev Yak-1 (Jakowlew Jak-1)
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Yakovlev Yak-7 fighters and trainers were also used by Polish air force, although in much smaller numbers than Yak-1, with their number never exceeding 20 at any given moment. First Yak-7B fighters and Yak-7V trainers were delivered in September 1943 to 1 SEM (later to be 1 PLM). In 1944 they were also delivered to 9, 10 and 11 PLM (usually 1-2 Yak-7B and 2-4 Yak-7V in each unit), as well as to 15 Samodzielny Zapasowy Pułk Lotniczy and Zamość/Dęblin school. All were retired in autumn 1946.

Poland, Yakovlev Yak-7 (Jakowlew Jak-7)
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Mainstay of Polish fighter force in the East and post-war were Yakovlev Yak-9 fighters. First such aircraft were delivered to 1 PLM in April 1944, but for a time being the unit's main mount were Yak-1's so the number of Yak-9's in Polish air force increased seriously only after formation of 9, 10 and 11 PLM's in late 1944 (when said 3 regiments received delivery of 98 factory-fresh aircraft in Yak-9M and Yak-9T versions) and in late 1944 also 1 PLM gradually begun transitioning to Yak-9's (in D, M and T models). During the offensive operations of winter and spring of 1945 were the most important type of fighter aircraft in the Polish "People's" air force, and one on which all of the forces' 16 air victories were gained (9 of which by pilots of 1 PLM). After the war, decision was made to standardize equipment of the fighter units on Yak-9's (generally in Yak-9M version, which happened to be most numerous anyway), and in 1947 deliveries of the more modern Yak-9P version has begun, which by 1949 replaced all other Yak-9's in service, except the twin-seat trainers (50 of which were converted locally from fighter versions). From early 1950s prop-driven fighters were gradually replaced by jet fighters until finally retired in mid-1950s. On 1st January 1945 number of Yak-9s in service stood at 103, on 24 April 1945 at 130, on 1 February 1946 on 200 (peak number) and on 1 September 1949 on 170.

Poland, Yakovlev Yak-9 (Jakowlew Jak-9)
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Small number (little over 20) of Yakovlev Yak-3 fighters were delivered to Polish air force in the final weeks of the war and shortly afterwards. They were never concentrated in any single unit, but were distributed between regimental and squadron commanders as their personnal plane, as well as used by communications flights of higher HQ. Last Yak-3's were removed from active service in autumn 1946.

Poland, Yakovlev Yak-3 (Jakowlew Jak-3)
[ img ]

In the middle of 1944 Soviet high command transferred the 611 ShAP - equipped with famous Ilyushin Il-2m Sturmoviks - to Polish air force as 611 PLSz, where it received a number of newly-trained Polish personnel and entered combat operations in August 1944. During autumn the unit was renamed as 3 PLSz and in next months it continued combat operations in northwestern Poland. Also during Autum formation of 2 DLSz has commenced, with 3 attack regiments - 6, 7 and 8 PLSz, based on cadres of 3 Soviet regiments, and few aircraft were used by 14 PRLiKOA. Division entered operations in April 1945 in the Berlin area. Shortly after the war the 2 PNB was retrained from Po-2 night harrasment bombers to Il-2's, and in late 1945-1946 Polish attack aviation was reorganized into 3 regiments (still with numbers 6, 7 and 8, but then the 6th regiment was former 2nd) and received more modern Il-2m type 3's. In 1947 these aircraft fought Ukrainian insurgents in southeastern Poland, and in the same time 30 aircraft were converted into training version. In total some 230 Sturmoviks were delivered to Poland, serving until early 1950s.

Poland, Ilyushin Il-2 (Iljuszyn Ił-2)
[ img ]

Like any other respectable air force, the Lotnictwo Wojska Polskiego, had to include bomber aviation, numbering one division with three regiments: 3, 4 and 5 PLB - all equipped with Petlyakov Pe-2 bombers. Formation of these units was based on 3 Soviet air regiments (previously using mostly R-5 and Po-2 aircraft), which were therefore being infused with new Polish draftees. These two factors (big "jump" in equipment sophistication and need to train personnel from scratch) meant that unit training took a long time and although already by early spring 1945 the division received all it's planned aircraft, it didn't managed to achieve operational capability before the end of the war. By that moment the 3 bomber regiments as well as Wojskowa Szkoła Pilotów and 15 ZPL and air flights of several higher headquarters had 111 Pe-2 aircraft (with nominal strength of 126). In the process of post-war reductions, 4 and 5 PLB were disbanded by February 1946 and 3 PLB - now sole operator of Pe-2's - was renamed 7 SPBN (and in 1950 into 7 PLB). In 1947 20 of the Polish Pe-2's were converted to the training standard and in 1948 reconstituted naval aviation in form of ELMW received several Petlyakovs for recon purposes and a number of these aircraft was also transferred to Dęblin school. By late 1940s it has been decided to replace these worn-out aircraft with newer Tu-2's, but because at the same time the new jet-powered Ilyushin Il-28 was also introduced, only small number of Tu-2's were delivered and 'Peshkas' had to soldier on until 1951 in combat units and until second half of the 1950s as multi-engine trainers. In 1950 one Pe-2 (named Pe-2SO) was converted in Instytut Lotnictwa as testbed for ramjet designed by prof. Stanisław Wójcicki, but in the end the engine never progressed beyond the ground trials.

Poland, Petlyakov Pe-2 (Petlakow Pe-2)
[ img ]

Although a combat aircraft, Bell P-39 Airacobra wasn't actually used as such by Polish military aviation. One was used as personal aircraft of gen. Fiodor Połynin, head of the air force and serviced first by 2 Samodzielna Eskadra Sztabowa and later by 2 Samodzielny Mieszany Pułk Lotniczy before being transferred in 1949 to Techniczna Szkoła Wojsk Lotniczych as educational sample. Another P-39 was found in crates on one railway station and after air force expressed lack of interest in it, it was taken by Politechnika Warszawska, also for educational purposes.

Poland, Bell P-39 Airacobra
[ img ]

Successor of the famous Il-2, the Ilyushin Il-10, entered service in Polish air force in 1949 when first such aircraft were delivered to 5 PLSz. By 1951 total of 96 Il-10 and 24 UIl-10 were delivered to all three attack regiments then in existence, as well as to Dęblin school. As from 1952 onwards attack aviation was being significantly expanded, in 1953 deliveries of Czechoslovak-built Avia B-33/CB-33 commenced, with 281 aircraft being bought. Altogether, Il-10/B-33 equipped 6 attack regiments (4, 5, 6, 48, 51, 53 PLSz), 1 and 12 LEKOA, and partially of the 30 PL MW and OSL-4. In 1956 version with external fuel tanks was developed and small number of such aircraft was transferred to Indonesia in 1957, which, however, wasn't pleased with it and returned it after some year and a half. In Poland Il-10/B-33's were used in attack units until 1958 and in auxiliary duties until 1960.

Poland, Ilyushin Il-10 (Iliuszyn Ił-10) and Avia B-33/CB-33
[ img ]

Already in late 1940s a decision was made to replace worn-out Pe-2 bombers with some more modern type, namely Tupolev Tu-2. Plans were made to form a whole bomber aviation division with 3 regiments, each with 33 Tu-2 and 3 UTB-2 trainers, but although the units were formed, the aircraft deliveries were far smaller. In October 1949 7 or 8 Tu-2S bombers arrived at 7 SPBN (from September 1950: 7 PLB), followed by 6 UTB-2 trainers (spread between the combat unit and Dęblin school) - and, according to some sources, 2 or 3 planes in combat version were delivered in 1950. In 1950 3 aircraft were transferred to naval aviation, while all UTB-2's were concentrated in Dęblin. Because of the rise in international tensions sparked by Korean War, further deliveries of Tu-2's never materialized, as it was decided to purchase much more modern Ilyushin Il-28 jet bombers, so the already owned aircraft were used instead for advanced training of the crews in all 3 bomber regiments (7, 33 and 35 PLB), until in 1954 they were transferred to 21 PLZ until year later they were also replaced by Il-28s. In 1955 2 ex-navy aircraft were transferred to 19 LEH as target tugs, serving there until late 1950s, while one plane was in 1956 converted into testbed for ejection seats in ITWL and used there until early 1960s. Currently 2 Tu-2s are preserved in Polish museums - in Warszawa and Kraków.

Poland, Tupolev Tu-2 (Tupolew Tu-2)
[ img ]

Additionaly Polish military aviation had between late 1944 and mid-1945 single Lavochkin La-5FN (Ławoczkin Ła-5FN). There were plans to equip certain units in these aircraft, particularly 14 Pułk Rozpoznania Lotniczego i Korygowania Ognia Artylerii, which was to have 10 such aircraft, but ultimately they weren't fulfilled and the only aircraft was delivered to 817 Ruchome Warsztaty Polowe Lotnictwa (817 Mobile Field Workshops of Aviation), possibly to be used for training of ground personnel, but actually used as personal aircraft of unit commander until early 1945 when it was transferred to flight school in Zamość and written off several months later. Unfortunately I haven't found any definitive information about appearance of that aircraft.


Transport Aircraft

Most important transport aircraft of the Polish air force in the first decade after the war was undeniably Lisunov Li-2 (license-built Douglas DC-3/C-47). Very first Li-2's in the Polish military in the Soviet Union appeared already in the Polskie Siły Zbrojne w ZSRR (Polish Armed Forces in the USSR) - commonly called Anders's Army during the 1941-1942, when several such aircraft (over certain period of time) were at disposal of the army commander, albeit these were aircraft belonging to Soviet air force and with Soviet crews. In the "people's" Polish Air Force first Li-2's appeared in the force in August 1944 in 2 Samodzielna Eskadra Sztabowa (supporting air force HQ), joined in March 1945 by 6 Samodzielna Eskadra Transportowa Specjalnego Przeznaczenia (for government flights) and month later by 7 Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Transportowego of the Oddział Lotnictwa Cywilnego (civil aviation wing of the air force), bringing their total number to around 15. As a result of post-war reorganizations 10 Li-2's were transferred to Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT while remaining were concentrated in Samodzielny Mieszany Pułk Lotniczy, in 1947 renamed Specjalny Pułk Lotniczy (from 1951: 36 Specjalny Pułk Lotniczy). In the post-war years more Li-2's were obtained, increasing their number in the air force to around 20 (and many more in the airlines - see page 5 of this thread): in 36 SPL, Kraków-based 55 Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego, Oficerska Szkoła Lotnicza at Dęblin, plus small number spread among some other units, including 7 Pułk Lotnictwa Bombowego, 9 Samodzielna Eskadra Łącznikowa KBW and Samodzielna Eskadra Lotnictwa Rozpoznawczego WOP.
Besides the basic transport function, Li-2's were also adapted for more specialized roles:
- Li-2SB - in 1947 in 1947 in Dęblin 2 aircraft were modified for navigator and wireless operator training (in addition to multi-engine flight training) and 1949 further modifications were made (with corresponding increase of adapted aircraft to 4) to bombardment training (designated Li-2SB) with bombsight installed in passenger cabin (and floor window added) and bomb racks under central wing (initially racks for 12x12kg bombs, later upgraded to 12x15kg bombs and in 1953 replaced with gondolas for 8x50kg bombs).
- Li-2F - in 1952 6 aircraft were modified for aerial survey with cameras installed in passenger cabin (and modifications to cockpit windows) - 4 were used in 36 SPL until 1963 (when they were downgraded to transport version and transferred to 55 PLT) and 2 more by civil aviation.
- Li-2 (PSBN-M) - to support crew training of Il-28 bombers, one plane in 7 PLB was equipped with radar bombsight PSBN-M under fuselage (in addition to other special electronic equipment).
Also, between 1959 and 1963 2 Li-2's were used by SELR WOP for maritime patrol, although their only difference from the rest of military Li-2's was their paint scheme.
Long service of Li-2's in Polish air forces ended in 1974 when last of these aircraft was retired at Dęblin.

Poland, Lisunov Li-2 (Lisunow Li-2)
[ img ]

Besides Li-2's, polish air force used also original US Douglas C-47's. First of these was delivered in November 1944 to 2 Samodzielna Eskadra Sztabowa. In March 1945 several become - together with Li-2's - equipment of 6 Samodzielna Eskadra Transportowa Specjalnego Przeznaczenia (for VIP flights). After the war this squadron become Rządowa Eskadra Transportowa (Government Transport Squadron), equipped fully with C-47's (both those received during the war and several "new", purchased from US surplus together with planes for the PLL LOT - see page 5 of this thread), and later become part of SPL (from 1951: 36 SPL). In 1947-1948 one Dakota was used by 9 SEŁ KBW and in 1952-1953 another one by OSL at Dęblin for multi-engine and wireless operator training. In 1958-1959 surviving C-47's were retired and sold to Iran.

Poland, Douglas C-47 Skytrain/Dakota
[ img ]

In 1944 Polish navigators and wireless operators trained at 2 Voennoe Avio-Uchilishche Letchikov Nablyudateley at Chkalovsk were using, among others, light transports Shcherbakov Shche-2 in special training version. In early 1945 5 such aircraft were delivered to Polish air force - initially 1 to 13 Samodzielny Pułk Lotnictwa Transportowego and 2 each to 15 Samodzielny Zapasowy Pułk Lotniczy and Szkoła Lotnicza WP. By August 1945 they were all concentrated in Wojskowa Szkoła Pilotów in Dęblin, where they were used in multi-engine flight, navigation, wireless, bombardment and gunnery training. In 1946 3 of them were destroyed by tornado and surviving aircraft were used a year longer when they were replaced by more capable Li-2.

Poland, Shcherbakov Shche-2 (Szczerbakow Szcze-2)
[ img ]

Among aircraft left behind by retreating Germans in 1944-1945 there was single French Caudron C.445 Goeland transport. It was restored to flying condition at WSK-PZL Mielec and user for transport, communication and service flights from 1947 to 1955.

Poland, Caudron C.445 Goeland
[ img ]

Several Focke-Wulf Fw-58 Weihe transports and trainers were left in Poland in 1945, but they were generally in scrap condition, so only one of them (in Fw-58B version) was restored to flying condition, although because it was plane used for armaments trials (it had large ventral gondolla for large-calibre cannon), it was heavily rebuilt in the process. Between ca. 1948 and 1954 it served at 9 Samodzielna Eskadra Łącznikowa KBW, then for few months was used by WSK-PZL Mielec (basically for the same purposes as Goeland) and in 1955 was adapted to air ambulance duties and transferred to Zespół Lotnictwa Sanitarnego where it flew until ca. 1959.

Poland, Focke-Wulf Fw-58 Weihe
[ img ]

Already mentioned on page 5 of this thread, in 1947 Polskie Lotnie Lotnicze LOT obtained from France 6 SNCAC NC-701 light transport aircraft (locally manufactured version of German Siebel Si-204) plus one dismantled for spares. They were used for aerial survey, though year later these duties - together with airplanes - were transferred to the air force, for which Samodzielna Eskadra Aerofotogrametrii i Rozpoznania Lotniczego (Autonomous Squadron of Aerial Survey and Aviational Reconnaissance) was formed. In 1951 the squadron was merged into 36 Specjalny Pułk Lotniczy. NC-701's were used in that unit until 1955.

Poland, SNCAC NC-701 (Siebel Si-204)
[ img ]

LWD Miś (teddy bear) was a failed attempt to create a small transport aircraft with good field-operating performance and powered with Argus As-10C engines of German origin (number of which were captured in 1945). Prototype was first flown in 1948 and although trials (and modifications) lasted until 1952, it was relatively quickly found that though the airframe is well designed and potentially very capable, the engines were too weak, and since there were no substitute for them available, the project was cancelled.

Poland, LWD Miś
[ img ]

Besides the 5 Ilyushin Il-12B passenger aircraft purchased for the PLL LOT (see page 6 of this thread), 2 more such aircraft (1 each Il-12B and D) were purchased in 1950 for the military and used in SPL / 36 SPLT, and 3 more were transferred from the airline in 1957. Il-12's remained in military service until 1967.

Poland, Ilyushin Il-12B (Iliuszyn Ił-12)
[ img ]


Light Aircraft

After the liberation in 1945 Polish civil aviation took over single ex-German Bücker Bü-131 trainer. After repairs it was registered in Aeroklub Poznański and afterwards used in various places until 1963.

Poland, Bücker Bü-131 Jungmann
[ img ]

Four ex-German Bücker Bü-181 aircraft were restored after the war to flying condition. They were used by aeroclubs and one of them also between 1948 and 1960 at Instytut Lotnictwa.

Poland, Bücker Bü-181 Bestmann
[ img ]

Some 20 of the legendary Fieseler Fi-156 Storch utility planes were captured in 1945 from the Germans, 12 of which were put back into service - both in military and civil aviation. Main military user was 9 Samodzielna Eskadra Łącznikowa Korpusu Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego but two were also used by naval aviation. In 1947, during the Greek Civil War, 9 SEŁ KBW ran a secret flying school for 25 members of Greek communist guerilla DSE. After completion of the course, 5 Fi-156 were shipped to Albania and transferred to DSE but it's unknown how - if at all - they were used afterwards. Military use of Storch in Poland lasted until 1951 for 9 SEŁ and 1953 for navy, and afterwards all planes were used by civil aviation, including aeromedical aviation - which was last user of the type until 1963.

Poland, Fieseler Fi-156 Storch
[ img ]

Six ex-German Focke-Wulf Fw-44 Stieglitz trainers were used in Polish post-war civil aviation.

Poland, Focke-Wulf Fw-44 Stieglitz
[ img ]

Five ex-German Heinkel He-72 Kadett trainers were used in post-war Poland until around mid-1950s.

Poland, Heinkel He-72 Kadett
[ img ]

Of the several Klemm Kl-35 trainers that were left on Polish airfields in 1945, 2 were restored to flying condition - one at Mielec and one at Poznań (and later Bydgoszcz).

Poland, Klemm Kl-35
[ img ]

Among the aircraft left in 1945 by retreating Germans were several Messerschmitt Bf-108 Taifuns, 2 of which were in 1947 restored at Mielec to flying condition. One of these was attached to 9 Samodzielna Eskadra Łącznikowa Korpusu Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego and second was initially used for several months by Zarząd Główny Ligi Lotniczej before being also transferred to 9 SEŁ KBW.

Poland, Messerschmitt Bf-108 Taifun
[ img ]

First aircraft built in post-war Poland was Szpak (Starling) created at Lotnicze Warsztaty Doświadczalne, first in Lublin and later in Łódź. Design works on simple communications aircraft with open cockpit (Szpak 1) commenced already in 1944 in Lublin, and after design teams' move to Łódź they were upgraded to slightly more ambitious version with full canopy (Szpak 2), which was flown in October 1945 and until 1948 served as government communications plane. In 1946 Szpak 3 with tricycle undercarriage was built and used until 1950 as courier plane for ministry of foreign affairs. In 1947 ministry of communications demanded aerobatics trainer for aeroclubs, and to meet this demand the Szpak 4A was built, but due to open cockpit it performance got worse and it didn't enter production, unlike the last version: Szpak 4T - communications and sports aircraft built in series of 10 for aeroclubs, where they were used until 1955.

Poland, LWD Szpak
[ img ]

Second Polish post-war aircraft was PZL S-1. It was designed as trainer and liaison aircraft by instructor of the Zamość military aviation school, lieutenant Eugeniusz Stankiewicz, and built with support from military authorities. It was flown in November 1945 but because it lacked many proper calculations (and despite the "PZL" designation was really a rather crude amateur design) it couldn't be formally certified. It's limitations eventually caused the tragic demise when in 14 May 1946 the plane crashed in central Warsaw with its designer behind controls.

Poland, PZL S-1
[ img ]

Demand from aeroclubs for light and simple trainer/tourer led the LWD team to create Żak (old fashioned term for student). Prototype (Żak 1) with Walter Mikron engine was flown in March 1947, followed in November of that year by Żak 2 with Lycoming engine (adapted from US-surplus Pipers). Short series of 10 aircraft Żak 3 with Mikron engines was built in 1948 and used until 1955. Finally, a prototype of glider tug Żak 4 was test-flown in October 1948, but the engine-propeller complex was unsuitable for that kind of duties and it wasn't developed further.

Poland, LWD Żak
[ img ]

As was mentioned already on page 5 of this thread, in 1947 Polskie Linie Lotnicze LOT bought 21 (14 flyable and 7 for spares) Cessna 50/UC-78 Bobcat aircraft from US war surplus to be used for training, taxi and service flights. They were used for this purpose rather briefly, though, and in 1950 all but one were retired, while remaining one was transferred to Instytut Lotnictwa which used it until 1962 for glider and target towing, parachute jumps and the like.

Poland, Cessna 50/UC-78 Bobcat
[ img ]

Also on page 5 I described the use of Piper J-3/L-4 Cub aircraft at PLL LOT, but it was not the only user of these famous aircraft in Poland. In 1947 130 were purchased from US surplus and after necessary repairs 127 of them were put into use (registered gradually until 1950). Most of them were used by aeroclubs (or, more formally, by Liga Lotnicza) of which they were main equipment alongside Po-2/CSS-13, while several were used by various institutions (including PLL LOT and Instytut Lotnictwa) and in 1949 10 Cubs were sold to Bulgaria. After 1951 14 were equipped for aerial topdressing and transferred from aeroclubs to PLL LOT until 1953 and later again in aeroclubs. In mid-1950s Pipers were retired from service and mostly scrapped as a result of "standardization" (read: removal of politically incorrect "imperialist" aircraft), although few survived longer, including 2 in private hands.

Poland, Piper J-3/L-4 Cub
[ img ]

LWD Zuch 1 ('brave kid' or 'cub scout') was a 1948 derivative of Junak 1 trainer for civilian use and with Walter Minor-6-III engine instead of M-11. It was followed in 1949 by Zuch 2 with Bramo Sh.14A engine (from German war prize), which was produced in short series of 5 (plus prototype).

Poland, LWD Zuch
[ img ]

First design made in Centralne Studium Samolotów was CSS-10 trainer for aeroclubs, intended to be intermediate step between in training process between LWD Żak and LWD Junak (or equivalents). Two prototypes were made - CSS-10A with Walter Mikron III engine, flown in 1948, and CSS-10C with Walter Mikron 4-III engine and more dihedral wing angle, flown in 1949. Also a version with enclosed canopy (CSS-10B) was planned but not built. CSS-10A had certain performance issues, but CSS-10C was ordered in series of 40, but these plans were dropped when plans to license-produce their engines in Poland were cancelled. Both prototypes were in limited use until mid-1950s.

Poland, CSS-10
[ img ]

Together with CSS-10, same design team created also CSS-11 aerobatics aircraft. Two prototypes were made, both with Walter Mikron 6-III engine but differing with tail configuration and certain elements of equipment. Although series of 30 was ordered, it was cancelled together with plans to license-produce their engines in Poland.

Poland, CSS-11
[ img ]


Unbuilt projects

CSS-10B was a planned version of CSS-10 trainer (see Light Aircraft above) with enclosed canopy.

Poland, CSS-10B
[ img ]

Between 1948 and 1950 CSS created a design of small transport plane CSS-15 - all metal, twin-engine high-wing monoplane with fuselage configuration resembling the Blackburn Beverley (although on much smaller scale). It was planned to make large use of parts produced during the war in Poland for German aircraft or from war prizes - BMW.132 or Bramo 323 engines, main undercarriage from He.111, as well as various smaller elements of equipment.

Poland, CSS-15
[ img ]

After the war an attempt was made to reactivate a pre-war SLKMSPW. In 1949 its members designed an ellegant sports and training aircraft of monocoque construction and with retractable undercarriage. Unfortunately, for political reasons that activity was halted and SKLMSPW was forcibly dissolved.

Poland, SLPW-1
[ img ]

Additionaly there were some other projects, for which the sources are, unfortunately, insufficient to draw them.
ITL M.48 or ITL-48 was a 1948 design of a fighter/fighter-trainer with W-shaped wings (like F4U Corsair) and Junkers Jumo-211 (significant number of which were captured in Poznań in 1945) made in Instytut Techniki Lotniczej (later: Instytut Lotnictwa).
Also in 1948 ITL made a design of a dedicated photo-survey aircraft in twin-boom configuration and Argus As.411 engine with pusher propeller, named ITL Aerofoto 48.
Around 1949 CSS team made preliminary designs of CSS projekt samolotu akrobacyjnego ('aerobatics aircraft project') and CSS projekt samolotu do opryskiwania lasów ('forest-spraying aircraft project'), as well as the CSS-242 which was an idea to add Argus engines to Gotha Go.242 assault gliders (several of which were recovered in Poland after the war), thereby effectively creating an Go.244 equivalent.


Gliders

1) Ex-German gliders taken over in 1945
Schneider SG-38 (nicknamed Patyk - stick) - Training glider, first flight in 1938, produciton run ca. 9000. Most numerous ex-German glider type in post-war Poland with some 400 in used (officialy 383 were registered, but some were used without registration and some more were cannibalized) until early 1950s.
Schneider Grünau Baby (nicknamed Jeżyk - little hedgehog) - Training glider, first flight in 1932, first flight of IIB version in 1940, production run ca. 6000. Second most-numerous ex-German glider in Poland with 275 officialy registered and used until 1952.
Schneider Motor Baby - (nicknamed Hulajnoga - kick scooter) - Motoglider, first flight in 1938, production run 25. Three in use between 1946 and 1948.
Akaflieg-München Mü-13 Atalante (nicknamed Muł - mule) - High-performance glider, first flight in 1936, production run ca. 150. Three used until 1953.
Göppingen Gö-3 Minimoa - High-performance glider, first flight in 1935, production run 110. Four used until early 1950s (one each at Bydgoszcz, Wrocław, Łódź and Bielsko).
Göppingen Gö-4 Gövier - Training glider (twin-seat, side-by-side), first flight in 1937, production run ca. 125. Two used, one of which was temporarily converted to motoglider configuration (LWD Osa - see below), until eventually reverted to original configuration.
DFS Kranich II (nicknamed Żuraw - crane) - Training glider (twin-seat, tandem), first flight in 1935, production run ca. 1700. 28 registered in Poland, including 1 Kranich I and 27 Kranich II. It was also reverse-engineered, modified and produced domestically as IS-C Żuraw (see below).
DFS Liege Kranich - Training glider (twin-seat, fron in prone position) for pilots of Blohm & Voss BV-40 fighter gliders, first flight in 1943, production run unknown. Four used in Poland, but because their utility in original configuration was zero, they were converted to typical Kranich II layout.
DFS Olympia Meise - High-performance glider, first flight in 1938, production run ca. 950, designed for gliding competitions on 1940 Helsinki Olympic Games. 21 registered and used in Poland until mid-1950s.
DFS Rhönbussard (nicknamed Rebus - riddle) - Aerobatic glider, first flight in 1933, production run ca. 200 (or just 25 according to some sources). 3 used in Poland.
DFS Weihe - High-performance glider, first flight in 1938, production run ca. 400. 12 used in Poland.
Additionaly several other "non-standard" ex-German gliders were also in use: Schneider SG-40 (1 glider in Grunów, 1946-1947), Schneider Grunau 100 Wundergleiter (1 glider in Grunów and later in Biała, 1946-1948), Schneider Grunau 8 Raft (1 glider in Grunów and later in Biała, 1946-1949), DFS Rhönadler (2 gliders in Bydgoszcz, 1945-1953), DFS Rhönsperber (1 glider in Jeżów, Bielsko and Katowice, 1946-1950) and FVA-10 Rheinland (1 glider in Żar and Bydgoszcz, 1946-1949).

It has to be noted, that it took some time before the official civilian aircraft registry was opened and for the first several months after the liberation gliders had either no registration or used makeshift semi-registration usually created by "recycling" German numbers.

[ img ]

2) Polish designs
IS-A Salamandra - Training glider, first flight in 1946, production run: 264 (or 223). In an attempt to kick-start domestic glider manufacture, it was decided to use several existing pre-war designs. For training use a sole surviving WWS-1 Salamandra was reverse-engineered and produced until 1957. Also an unspecified number (most likely between 100 and 300) was license-produced in People's Republic of China.
IS-1 Sęp (Vulture) - High-performance glider, first fight in 1947, production run: 6 (prototype and 5 IS-1 Sęp-bis). First wholly-new Polish post-war glider design, used to establish numerous national records. In 1956 one glider was used for trials of valveless pulse-jet engines.
IS-2 Mucha (Fly) - High-performance training glider, first flight in 1948, production run: 135. Used until mid-1960s, by which time it established numerous World and national records.
IS-B Komar 48 (Mosquito) - High-performance training glider, production run: 23 or 25. Modernized version of Antoni Kocjan's 1933 glider, used until mid-1960s.
IS-3 ABC - Initial training glider, first flight in 1948, production run: 256. Designed as very simple yet also rugged training vehicle, was also produced in China.
IS-4 Jastrząb (Hawk) - Aerobatics glider, first flight in 1949, production run: 35.
IS-5 Kaczka (Duck) - Experimental glider in canard configuration. One made in 1949.
HWL Pegaz (Pegasus) - Motoglider, one made in 1949. Built in response to 1945 contest by Departament Lotnictwa Cywilnego Ministerstwa Komunikacji (DLC, Civil Aviation Department of the Ministry of Communications) for a motoglider that could be used for economical training and sports use. Several designs were presented (see below), but only this one was actually built, though the construction has dragged on and despite plans for a series of 80, the development was eventually dropped and prototype was used for some time at Warsaw aeroclub.

[ img ]

3) Unbuilt designs
LWD Osa (Wasp) - Motoglider conversion of the german Göppingen Gö-4 Gövier (see above) glider, attempted in 1945-1946 at LWD in Łódź, but never completed and eventually glider was returned to original configuration.
Leja Helo - ca. 1946, motoglider designed for a DLC contest (see above). Note: exact dimensions speculative.
Lassota-Wasilewski Ikar 1 (Icarus) - ca. 1946, motoglider (actually an ultralight aircraft) for DLC contest.
Perkoz (Grebe) - ca. 1946, motoglider for DLC contest. Remarkable for two reasons: first, it had original controls arrangement without ailerons but with stabilizers in inverted V configuration (each one on the end of a boom); secondly - author of this design happens to be currently unknown.

[ img ]

_________________
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Last edited by eswube on April 13th, 2017, 10:07 pm, edited 2 times in total.

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Krakatoa
Post subject: Re: Polish WingsPosted: October 8th, 2016, 1:45 am
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What an amazing set of drawings, well done Eswube.


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adenandy
Post subject: Re: Polish WingsPosted: October 8th, 2016, 6:06 am
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:shock: WOW :!:

I feel almost fluent in Polish now :geek:

Jolly WELL DONE Eswube :!: FANTASTIC write up (read by me if FULL, so not just Hoody ;) ) and SUPERB set of drawings old boy :P

I can't wait for the next installment :D

Well Done again old chap :P


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mortarigus
Post subject: Re: Polish WingsPosted: October 8th, 2016, 8:02 am
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One can only consider this monumental contribution almost as an act of love. I have long been moved by the Polish epic struggle for freedom and autonomy as one of history's great sagas. This thread from an aviation point of view does it great justice. Polish aviation has displayed great originality, ingenuity and perseverance against huge obstacles; I look forward to the this ongoing contribution as a vision for a brighter reflection for a glorious future for gallant Poland and her people.


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Gollevainen
Post subject: Re: Polish WingsPosted: October 8th, 2016, 8:41 am
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well there is a some mouthfull to be chewed over next couple of hundreds times I click on this thread :)
Very good work, and promising for whats to come in future.
Do happen to have "blank" sheets of the newly introduced aircrafts done?

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Hood
Post subject: Re: Polish WingsPosted: October 8th, 2016, 9:06 am
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This latest instalment has been well worth the wait.
Truly excellent work on all of these aircraft and the repaints on other artist's work.

I've not yet had time to read the introductory posts but they look to be the most comprehensive information on Polish post-war aviation that I have ever seen in the English language. So I will be reading them in depth when I have time to.

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