Welcome. I don't have an exact date for you on when the Plexiglas wind screens became widespread, but my general guess (based on the ships I've researched) would be mid-to-late 1944 onward. It's a pretty small detail in most photos, which is why you don't often see them in plans and model kits especially. The highly-detailed Floating Drydock plans for Alaska don't show the wind screens. My own drawings of Alaska and Guam don't show them (they were last updated in 2014) though I've had them on my list of alterations for later revisions.
The photo of CAPT Noble on the bridge is the best close-up I've seen, but I've also seen good close up shots of the Plexiglas windshields on photos of Indianapolis and on some of the DDs.
Indianapolis at Mare Island in May 1943 shows the new rebuilt open bridge, but no windshield:
By Dec 1944, the windshield had been added (the white circle on the photo indicates it was a recent alteration during this yard period):
Another shot of the windshields, this time during the Jul 1945 yard period at Mare Island, shortly before the voyage to Tinian (interestingly the windshields are circled again -- maybe they were modified?)
Similar models of Plexiglas windscreens were fitted to the first of the Allen M. Sumner units which had the distinctive enclosed "British style" bridges. Here are two shots of DD-724 Laffey's bridge showing the interior of the open conning station:
A plan view of the bridge shows the windshields as well (I'm not sure which specific DD these plans are for):
Re: the Alaska class, the pre-commissioning photos of Alaska show the windshields in place on the conning station bulwarks at the 07 level:
Photos of Guam during the same period show the windshields in place, though they are hard to make out. Guam's workup photos (in camouflage) show a canvas canopy mounted over this position.
Given this, think it's safe to assume these windshields were fitted during construction (likely as a "new development" they were slotted into the yard's schedule and fitted on the ships). Without finding the actual builders' plans of Alaska and Guam, would be difficult to know. You could also search for the original shipyard correspondence at NARA, or ask the researchers on the Model Warships forum.
Hope that helped.
basically if you see a ship with open bridge, you can assume that they have some sort of weather protection (windscreen), it can be a sort of wing in front of the bridge that will channel the air upward and create an natural-airwall or and windscreen.
In USN parlance this is a "venturi shield" -- a wind deflector that uses the venturi effect to create an area of dead air right in front of the bulwark so watchstanders aren't blasted by cold air.
Will you now tell us what the Norwegian navy calls it?