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Gollevainen
Post subject: Byzantine/Komintern AUPosted: July 27th, 2010, 2:00 pm
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(I'm posting here the orginal posts of the Komitern/Byzantium thread of the old forum)

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Byzantine empire is as we all known a what once was east-rome. However during sometime around 500 AD large Slavic migration started from current Ukraine region towards the balkans. In 682 Yaroslav Dunab, a Kaan of the strongest slavic horde won the byzantine empire and occupied Konstantinopol. He seized the throne and proclaimed himself as the new emperor of rome. Thus started the new Byzantine empire and the country which we have now.

Slavic people took over quite fast areas around balkan. The rule of the empire changed in the due of time. At largest it controlled the areas from Croatia to nort of Iraq but towards the end of the first millenium, Muslim powers in the middle east started to grown. Ruling over Anatolia and middle east prooved out to be difficoult due the slavic culture not expanding there and the growning expansion of Islam as a religion. The main core are of slavic Byzantium thus remained the eastern Balkan area.
In north Byznantine gained ally from principality of Kiev. It eventually led to Byzantine to absord it to its own rule as the other russian powers started to grown powerfull as the Mongol rule declined. This also gave Byzantium a new route to expand as the slavic inhabitance in Ukraine was more easily to be assorped into the empire. In the 14th century, Byzantium gained a new powerfull rival, the Ottoman empire which had grewn in the middle-east. In various wars during the next centuries it took over most of Byzantines holdings in Anatolia and even expanded into the coast of Black sea in the north and took over Krim area and eventually even the southern tip of Greece. The decline of Byzantine power enabled Austia and Lithuania to grow powerfull around the emipre and effectively restraining Byzantine.

Rise of Russia, the "norther rural periferia" ironically helped Byzantine to it's new rise as well. Andrei II and Peter the Great formed union called Roman Commonwelth in 1722 after the later had greated the Russian empire. This removed the possiple struggle over rule of the southern slavic people and enable the two powers focus on different areas. Where as Russia went after the Polish-Lithuania, Byzantine started it's agressive period towards the Ottoman empire. One by one Byzantine took over it's core areas back in the black sea area and even expanding into Caucasus.
In the 19th century Byzantine's power begun to raise concerns in the west. Ottomans gained support from Brittain and from France and the Byzantine agression was forced to put on halt. Launching point to this was the biggest victory in sense of land from Ottomans, the war of Egypt in 1820. After the Egypt had gained independence from the Ottomans in 1805, Byzantine laid eyes on this area as a possibility to regain the power in middle east. Byzantine attacked Egypt in 1820 but Egypts old master, Ottomans camed it's help. Byzantine was however succesfull and as the burden of owning a favour laying over western powers as exhanges to Roman Commonwelths role in defeating Napoleon, Ottomans was left alone. Byzantine managed to win Ottomans armies and Egypt remained in their hands. British influence however prevented Byzantine to gain more power in the expense of the Ottomans.

In 1853 a conflict between the Roman Comonwelth and the west escalated into the war of Crim. West was triuphant and Byzantine was forced to accept a peace and treaty which forced it to aknowlidge the current sovreignity of Ottoman empire.
The defeat in Crim war was a major setback for the reclaiming the areas of the empire. Soon after a new young Emperor Konstantin XI took over the throne and thus started the "konstantine era" which would bring the Byzantine in it's height of power.

Konstantin XI or Konstantin Velikyi was determed that the somewhat backward (tough not as much as it's northern ally) needed modernisation in it's internal elements if it ever wished to be a power to withstand the west. He started large industration progress in the empire from which the main legacy is the Suez Canal joining the searoutes from Red sea to the Mediterainian. One of the main reason for pursuing this was Konstantins lust for expanding the empire from its historical stronghold into colonial power. As Byzantine was bit late in colonizing Africa and America, it steered it's eyes into east. Shorthening the searoute to Asia would give Byzantine a major advantage over France and Brittain and other european powers. The new route was opened in 1869 and in the next 30 years, Byzantine's empire started to expand into colonial lands. First "aqustions" was Ethiopia, a orthodox cristhian oddity in the horn of Africa. This was followed by Sumatra and eventually the Guangxi and Guangdon in southern China.

Fall of Napoleon III and rise of German empire made the old treaties with Ottomans void and in 1876 together with it's new puppet, Serbian Kigndom, Byzantine decleared war on Ottmans and Byzantine gained it's current areas in Anatolia and whole Greece back. Byzantine had absording Serbia into the empire in mind but under the fear of expanding the war with western intervention, Byzantine agreed to aknowlidge the independence of Serbia. Serbia however was allowed to join the Roman Comonwelth.

Serbian ampitions to unite the slavic peoples under Austrian rule led to series of conflicts and bad relations between the Byzantine and Austro-Hungarian empire. These conflicts escalated in 1914 when the sarajevo shots were fired. This started the first world war and altough Byzantine empire ended up being victorious, it however was the last war fought by the empire and the end was near.

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Coming next: L/M Moskva, some research ships, pr.26bis, Pr.1144 remakes and Project 1143 complete redux.



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Last edited by Gollevainen on July 27th, 2010, 2:12 pm, edited 1 time in total.

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Gollevainen
Post subject: Re: Byzantine/Komintern AUPosted: July 27th, 2010, 2:02 pm
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To counter Brithish, Italian and French fleets, Byzantine started a extensive naval program which included series of battleships to be build which equalled to those being build abroad. First two units formed the Andrei II class which was itself enlargened design of the previous Pajarin class (classified as coastal amoured ship during WWI). It featured 305mm guns as main battery and 12 152mm secondaries in twin turrets as well as 14 100mm guns in casemants.
Andrei II was followed by the Ukraina class which had icreased ammount of the 100mm guns and the middle twin 152mm raised to superfiring over the other two mounts allowing more barrels to be trained towards front and rear sectors. 4 units were build but the additional 4 were build in different standarts as Imperator Konstantin Velikyi class. Changes to the previous 4 were radical when the weaponry was considered. The twin 152mm mounts were replaced with 6 twin 203mm guns and the 100mm guns were replaced with 12 120mm of which 10 were in casemants and 2 in shielded turrets in the superstructure.

The orginal plan was to field 12 battleships but when the Imperator Konstantin Velikyi class was being build, two major events changed the plans. In 1905 Byzantines ally Russia fought a war against the Japanese in fareast and suffered humiliating defeat. The experience and lessons learned in the naval battles was quickly adopted to the battleship program. It was decided that atop the 10 existing battleships build under the expansion program, 4 addtional battleship were to be build. These were to recieve heavier armour and heavier weaponry. 4 hulls of the Navarin class were laid down. Main armament was the new 45 caliber versions of the 305mm guns. Secondary arragment followed the lines of the previous ships but with 254mm guns instead the 203mm. 20 120mm guns were fitted in casemants. These ships were to be as the "most powerfull battleships" fielded in any navy. However when they were still being constructed, Great Brittan choosed to make this class acient even before it was completed.

With the introduction of the Dreadnought class, Byzantine decided to awnser it with similar philosofy. Sadly the Navarin class was already so well progress, that only the last unit, Pavel Nahkimov (to be introduced in the dreadnought sheet) was build in different layout fielding the "all big guns concept".

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Gollevainen
Post subject: Re: Byzantine/Komintern AUPosted: July 27th, 2010, 2:03 pm
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Pavel Nahkimov was redesigned while it's three sister were already been laid down. It was to serve as a "pioneer for the new waves in battleship construction" eg. to test the all big gun concept. Designer V.P Kostenko's proposak won the conpetition for new layout and the ship featured rather interesting arragment of weaponry. Main guns were 305mm/45 fitted in 5 single mounts of which two in tandem arragment in the bow, two in en enchelon arragment in the middle and one in stern. The b-turret weren't superfiring becouse the guns could be fired forward when the elevation of the tubes were high enough e.g how it would be any reasonable engagement option with these weapons from this angle. 14 120mm seccondaries were all placed in twin turrets.

The ships unique solutions didn't attract much love in the admirality and thus Kostenko's ideas weren't reproduced in the following Rostislav class which was to be the first "real dreadnoughts" for Byzantine fleet. Rostilav featured new 305mm/52 mainguns with twin turrets. The en enchelon arragment for the middleship guns were retained but the forward guns were set in superfiring arragment. The seccondaries remained the same but were positioned in casemats on the superstructure.

Following class for Rostislav first intended to be slightly lenghtened versions of the previous ones with all guns in centreline arragment but the ever increasing naval race abroad forced Byzantine to awnser with more powerfull design. A new maingun calibre, 356mm/52 was selected to counter british 343mm ships as well as new 356mm designs from the new emerging superpower, Japan. Tsesarevich class had 10 356mm guns in superfiring twin turrets fore and aft as well as one midship turret in centreline. 16 120mm seccondary guns were fitted. Two ships were ready when the war broke up and the seccond pair was given top priority to be completed and they joined the fleet in the seccond year of the war.

The naval race didn't stop to 13.5 to 14 inch maingun battleship designs and even bigger calibre guns were being considered among with ships with heavier armour than previous designs. In Byzantine, it was felt that the next battleship was to be superior to all existing designs and be sort of "two generation" leap over it's rivals. Therefore it was decided that the next battleship class should feature 406mm mainguns instead of the 381mm which were being fielded in Brittain and in German navies. Kostenko's design won the design competition and two the "Nikolayevsk's monsters" as dupted in foreing press were laid down in 1916. Tsarigrad class as it was correctly named featured 9 406mm guns in three tripple turrets, the fore turrets positioned in the same fashion as in Pavel Nahkimov. 20 152mm seccondaries were featured, 12 fitted in 6 twin turrets and 8 in casemat mounts. Both vessels were still building, about 80% finnish in 1918

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Post subject: Re: Byzantine/Komintern AUPosted: July 27th, 2010, 2:04 pm
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Tri Svyatilelya class were the first Byzantine build protected cruisers and were part of the naval expansion program started at the turn of the century. These were powerfull vessels when commisioned with 10 152mm mainguns and 12 75mm seccondaries. They were followed by 4 Admiral Zaranev class which were basicly improved continuation of the previous class. Main change was in the weaponry. 12 152mm guns were fitted in 6 twin turrets making them unique to other contempory cruisers. Machinery was also different which allowed one funnel to be deleted.

After Admiral Zaranev class the major changes in naval warfare halted Byzantine's cruiser program as the adaption of steam turbine propulsion was desired for cruisers as well. This led to development which the last two cruiser class of Byzantine envolved. After preminary studies, decision was made around 1910 that the next series of cruisers should be "beoynd any opponent" as with the case with some other byzantine warships description. This slightly megalomanical policy camed from the inability of Byzantines shipyards to produce quality warships with high quantivities. Ironically the desicion was to focus on the quality over quantity. This ment that the development phase of the new cruiser class was rather lenghtly.
Sometime around 1912 it was calculated that the new ships would need to be 200m in lenght, over 10 000 tons displacement in order to carry the intended 12 152mm guns in tripple turrets and with speed of 30 knots. This was decided unacceptable and intermediate solution was opted. Byzantine turned into German help and ordered plans for 4 5000 ton turbine powered cruisers from Germany. This became the Admiral Neveskiy class of which four were laid down just prior the first world war. The ships were very similar to countempory german light cruisers and were armed with 8 152mm guns.
The "supercruiser" idea was however not completely forsaken as the turbine powered cruisers begun to emerge in other rivaling navies. Thus the orginal plans were ressuerected and molted into slightly modified design. It became the Rimskoi Sodruzhestvo class. The ship displacement was slightly bellow 10 000 tons and were 180m in lenght. The armament was as orginally intended, 12 152mm guns in tripple turrets disposed in centreline in similar fashion as in Russian battleships.
4 ships were laid down during the war but progress was slow. The leadship was commisioned a month after the Versaile peace treaty was signed.

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Post subject: Re: Byzantine/Komintern AUPosted: July 27th, 2010, 2:05 pm
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At the start of WWI, Byzantine had two classes of "Classic" Armoured cruisers in it's inventory. Sofia class was first of such shiptype completely designed in Byzantine. It featured rather heavy armament for it's size, 2 203mm main guns in single mounts bow and stern and 8 120mm in the sides.

Soon after a class of 5 armoured cruisers were ordered from France. Poltava class was considerably larger, it featured 2 203mm and 8 152mm ordanance. First unit, Poltava was build in France but the rest of the class was build at Nikolayevsk.

Follow up class for Poltava class was intended to be turbine powered and heavier armed, with 254mm main guns and 203mm seccodaries. However the commisioning of HMS Invincible took the rug under all armoured cruisers. Germany followed and the new type of warship, battlecruiser emerged. In Byzantine the idea of battlecruiser was not that well liked. Many felt that the dreadnought type weaponry would lure admirals to use them in the battleline where they wouldn't survive in due their limited armour. Also the France and Italy didn't seem to follow german and UKs direction. However the precence of british battlecruisers in meditereinian forced Byzantine to reply and the Asov class was altered with "all big gun" in the last minutes. Asov class featured 3 tripple 305mm turrets and 12 120mm seccodaries.

As with the dreadnoughts, the rapid increase of main weaponry calibre followed into the battlecruiser family as well. To awnser brittish 343mm battlecruisers, a new battlecruiser design was authorised wich featured 12 356mm guns in 4 tripple turrets. Seccodaries were heavily improved from the asov class with 24 152mm guns. The design featured unique arragment of it's main guns which were in centreline but quite seperated from each other to prevent one shot being able to knock-out half of the ships weaponry at the same time. This arragment however forced the size of the ship into quite big porpotions and the ship featured almoust 40 000 tons full load displacement. Only one of the class was finnished before the war, Solun being still on the slipyard when the war ended.

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Post subject: Re: Byzantine/Komintern AUPosted: July 27th, 2010, 2:06 pm
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In the end of the first decade of the 20th century, Byzantine followed the trend of it's northern neighbour and sought tenders for new series of fast destoryers. They were first in kind of such shipclass in Byzantine's navy, previously only operating with torbedoboats or Minonsest. Where as Russia ended up with german design and went for the "novik's", Byzantine selected Thornycrofts offer of improved "Tartar" class.

5 units of the orginal design was build in 1909-11 as the "A" series (all shipnames starting with the letter A, a practice which has continued with Byzantine's and it's successors destroyer naming untill very recently) followed by 25 near sister ships in series "B" and "V". Main armament was two (3 in "V") 102mm guns and 3 single (2 tripple in "V" class) 457mm torbedotubes.

V series was followed by 12 "G" series ships with slightly improved design. Major visible changes were in mahcinery arragment and with continious forecastle deck. Gun armament returned to 2 102mm guns in favour of third tripple 457mm TT.

Performance of Russia destroyer Novik attracted Byzantine's admirality and soon a improved version of the Novik design was laid down in Byzantine with German help. The class known as the "D" serie was considerable larger than the previous brittish influenced destroyers and carrier 4 102mm guns and 2 tripple and 2 single 457mm TTs. The design prooved out to be rather succesfull and it was introduced to German Kaiserliche Marine as well. Total of 6 were build.

The first completely Byzantinian destroyer design was the "M" series, a superdestroyer design nearing the size of a small cruisers. They were intended to act as a flotilla leaders for the smaller destroyers. They introduced new weapon systems, the 122mm gun, 6 which were carried and 533mm torbedotubes, of which 2 tripple mounts were fitted. 5 ships were build, commisioned just before the end of the war.

To follow on the "D" series, an improved design of the orginal design was introduced. "N" series carried the new 122mm main guns, 4 in total with first time the bow mounted guns in superfiring A and B positions. Two tripple 533mm TT were also fitted. 9 ships were laid down but none were completed before the war ended.

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Post subject: Re: Byzantine/Komintern AUPosted: July 27th, 2010, 2:08 pm
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Komintern

• 1914 Byzantine empire enters world war I.

• 1916 Long dwelling unpleased towards the imperial government leds Duma to overtake the power in the empire. Emperor is seized from the throne and governance is given to the “republicans” a coalition of various political opposition fractions. Young Tsar Igor VII is allowed to move to Russia. Official name of the empire is referred as “Union of republics”. The new government agrees to continue the war against Germany and Austria-Hungary.


• 1917 Although UR is still fighting against the central powers, it’s war efforts are not that considerable. It tries secretly seek peace from the central powers but no agreement is found. Meanwhile the power inside the republican coalition is drifting towards the communist which already was the largest single fraction inside the movement. Similar republican uprising takes place in Russia and at the end of the year, communist conducts the October revolution. As soon as Bolsheviks assumes control, they start seeking peace with the Germans.

• 1918 Soviet-russia makes peace with the Germans. UR is divided between the communist which wanted to make peace with the Germans as well and between the other republicans who didn’t want to share the same fate as Russia and been forced to cede areas. The latter party remained stronger and the war continued. The drift between the communists and others grew and most of the army and navy were rabidly turning “red”. The war ends finally in November and the nominally still democratical UR received preparations from the losing side. UR gains Transylvania from Austria-Hungary and most of German colonies from Africa and Asia. As its evident that the communist rule was quite strong in UR as well, other entente nations didn’t want to hand over too much gains to UR. Especially British were very suspicious of the true nature of the republican government. Thus the former close ally, Serbia which relations towards its former protector were seriously cooled gained the lion share of the partition of the Hasburg empire. The right-wing section of the republican coalition was very disappointed that UR didn’t receive any additional gains from the dismantled Ottoman empire.

• 1919 The communist section of the republican coalition felt strong enough to break out from the coalition. In 15th of may the communist overtook the government and declares a dictator of the proletarian. The revolution is swift and effective, and most of the mainland is in communist supervision during the summer. The remaining standing army after world war 1 was already under strict communist rule and Red Army is founded immediately. The Navy was actually ahead of the whole government as the communist sailors and cadets conducts the “bospor rebel” in april of the same year. It was actually the launching event for the entire revolution. The nation is now called “Union of socialist republics” or USR.

• 1920 USR sends voluntary based red guards to help Soviet Russians in their civil war. Foreing powers are alarmed of the rapid expansion of communism, but are reluctant to start full scale war. Unlike Russia, USR appears being far more united and fully in communist control. However, in the colonies, especially in Asia, the old royalist power still enjoys support among the nobles and upper class colony overlords. Sumatra and Quanghi declears independent and reclaims the Byzantine empire by issuing the cousin of the last emperor as a new emperor. Despite being heavily anti-communist, no foreign country recognizes it.

• 1921 USR sends a taskforce to Quaghi and with the help of the local communists, they overtook the new imperial regime. Sumatra falls soon after as the royalist support is non-existing among the local population. The new regime in the mainland brought a new exiting idea of equal status among the nations inside the new Union of socialistic republics.

• 1922 After the civil war ending in Russia, there are serious attempts to bring the two communist ruled nations into same rule. A union of soviet Russia and communist Byzantine is being created but the differences and disagreements between the two nations are too big. Officially the reasons are mainly the differences between the interpretations of how the new communist union should be led. Soviets, especially those led by Stalin are not keen on the world revolution concept, which again was mainstream in USRs thinking. Eventually the discussions fell apart and two communist federations are created; Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Communist International or Komintern as it’s being shortened.
Kominterns idea was forged with the idea of true Marxist world without the bourgeois country elements. It was build around the idea of communist parties rather than any nationalist countries. At the start the Komintern was formed between the communist party (Byzantines main party) and the communist parties of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Sumatra, Ethiopia, Quanghi and Egypt. Later several communist parties around the world joined the union.
Altough the concept of the nation was very revolutionary and from normal borgerous nations point of view, heavily expansionist and dangerous in reality it was just new clothes for the Byzantine imperium.


• 1923 The peak of communist and socialist uprising and tension in Europe has cooled down. In bourgeois world it is felt relief as the feared world revolution never came. Nations starts in all silence building up relations with the new Komintern.




• 1924 V.I Lenin dies in Soviet Union, Josif Stalin takes over which cools even more the already non-pleasant relations of the two communist blocks.

• 1925-29 Komitern starts steadily grew back to its feet’s after the turmoil caused by the revolutions. Ownership of production is moved to the working class, or their representative; Socialistic government. Large former noble led farms were taken over by the government and small farms were organized into collective farms. The transformation into socialistic economy didn’t go smoothly; a lot of small uprisings took place especially in the countryside and among cultural minorities. However the famines and mindless terror didn’t took place in Komintern in such scale as it took in the Soviet Union. Foreign relations with many nations improved but especially with Italy, Hungary and Turkey, the relations remained very cold.

• 1930 Komintern is invited into the London Naval Congress. The other major naval powers felt that Kominterns emerging fleet rebuilding program would eventually lead similar anglo-german dreadnought race as was seen prior WWI. As a carrot, several lucrative trade deals for Komitern was promised if it agrees to sign the London Naval treaty which imposed tonnage and armament limitations for Kominterns Red Fleet.


Komintern was allowed the following tonnages of warships:

Capital ships; 315 000 tons
Carriers: 81 000 tons
Heavy cruisers: 108 000 tons (12 units)
Light Cruisers: 100 450 tons

These new restrictions were imidiately adopted for the new shipbuilding program and several interesting adoptions took place.


• 1931-39 Komiterns activity in international spectrum increases. Relations with Soviet Union remain problematic. Both sides acknowledges that unless they work together, bourgeois world can easily turn the two communist powers against each others. In 1932 a declaration of Understandment and Friendship is signed between Komintern and Soviet Union. This tried to co-ordinate the efforts of co-existence of the two powers but as well as end the dispersion and competition of influence over foreign communist parties. In practice this does not prove out working as seen in China and Spain.

1936 Civil war broke out in Spain. Both Komintern and Soviet Union send assistance and help to the republicans. Komintern was hoping that Spain would finally be the standing point of Komiterns original idea for “worlds nation”. This causes a lot of worrying in west and therefore France nor UK won’t support the republicans and declared embargo over Spain. Germany and Italy are meanwhile working actively to help out the nationalists and violating the embargo. Soviet Union was far more pragmatic in its support for the republicans. It tried to keep the republican side united where as Komintern was actively trying to set up a socialistic state in Spain. The rivaling between Soviets and Komintern was generally toughed to be the main reason why republican side lost. The communist party of Spain was under soviet influence and POUM movement was the instrument of Komiterns ambitions. Eventually the two parties ended up fighting each others, which again moved the two communist powers further apart of each others.

When Hitler took over the leadership in Germany, the gloom of new world war started to shadow Europe. Mussolini’s Italy grew more and more arrogant and megalomaniac with new ally in north. Mussolini worked actively to uniting the fascist and rightwing extremist powers in Europe against Komintern. This led to the Tripact; alliance between Italy, Hungary and Turkey which all had claims and gains from Komintern. In 1936, Italy occupied Somalia which threatened Ethiopia. In 1937 Japan started full scale war in China which again threatened Komiterns interest in Asia. Komitern tried actively seeking bigger coalition against the fascist world but western powers were too suspicious and concerned of Komitern to nothing come out of it.

In 1938 Japan and Komintern clahses at Hainan as Japanese tries to set up a presence in southern China. Komiterns naval presence is minimum in the area and Japanese fleet sank one old cruiser. Japanese are too afraid to start full scale land war but Komintern starts bringing a lot of additional troops and naval units into Asia. It’s often believed that the naval clash was orchestrated by Germany and Italy which wanted Kominterns focus and worries be distracted away from Europe.

World turned into blazes at autumn 1939 when Germany attacked Poland. Prior that Germany and Soviet Union signed a non-aggression pact in which they divided eastern Europe between themselves into spheres of interest. Soviet Union also agreed that it wouldn’t intervened if Italy and its allies would attack Komintern if Germany remains neutral.

Tripact-Komintern war 28th October 1940 -22nd June 1941

After WWI, Byzantine and it’s successor’s USR and Komintern gained land from the loosing parties Ottoman empire and Austria-Hungary. When right-wing extremism and ultra-nationalism started to grow in the successor states, Hungary and Turkey a blaming finger was pointed to Kominterns direction. Not only did it held lands and people formely under their rule, the aggressive support to local communists in surrounding nations was enough to Kominterns neighbors to want it’s dismantle. To add the situation, Mussolini’s Italy dreamed of an Italian empire around the Mediterranean in the footsteps of Roman imperium. In 1936 these three nations signed secret alliance pact known as the “tripact”. It’s goal was not only a common defense in case of Komitern maneuvers but actively seeking opportunity to launch decicive war to end Kominterns existence. Nazi Germany was aware of the pact and their plans but was not actively involved to the pacts affairs.

When Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the Soviets, Hitler after Mussolini’s request managed to bend Stalin to accept tripacts attack plans against Komintern. It’s even speculated that Hitler would have promised Caucasus and parts of Ukraine to the Soviets. No written proof of such exists however. After Poland fell and Germany’s warmachine begun to roll over Scandinavia and France, Mussolini with in his inferior complex wanted to achive similar triumphs. Plans to attack Komintern was started. Main idea was that Italy would attack from Albania into Greece and in Africa, Hungary to Romania and cutting of Balkans from Ukraine and Turkey to attack in Anatolia and head towards the capitol Kosmopol (Former Tsarigrad). The plan was bold and considered by most even unrealistic but Mussolini was convinced that adopting the devastating German blitzkrieg tactics, it would not prevail. The growing tension in Asia between Komintern and Japan made Komintern to transfer most of its fleet and a lot of troops to China and Indonesia. Italy’s plan included rapid seizure of Suez canal to prevent the Red Fleet to return home and challenging Regina Marina.

The war broke out in October 1940. It became somewhat surprise to Komintern which was expecting joint German-Soviet attack from the north or Japanese maneuvering in China. Tripact war machine was not however as effective as the German one. Turkey managed to push trough in Anatolia and the attack was not stopped until in the gates of the capital. Hungary’s attack was stopped into Carpathian Mountains and Italy’s attempt to push trough Albania was stopped all together. In Africa, Italy’s troops managed to took over most of Ethiopia but in Egybt, the attack was stopped before they could reach into Suez. At the end of the 1940 it was evident that Komintern wasen’t beaten with the first blow. Red Fleet returned to mediterainian in December 1940 and engaged Regina Marina in the in the Egyptian coast. The battle was a success, Sinking the Battleship Conte Di Cavour and damaging Littorio and Caio Dulio. It was groundbreaking battle as for the first time in history, Aircraft carriers defeated battleships. Red Fleet ‘s “light section” which included the carriers were headed for seek out Italian fleet ahead the main battleshipfleet.
Italian naval dominance was defeated and Komintern was able to send support to Egypt.

Hitler was furious after seeing the poor results of Italy and its allies. Not only did the initial attack fail but Komintern was showing signs of pushing tripact on defensive mode, especially in Romania and in Caucasus where Turkey’s advance was already turned into retreat. Hitler had hoped that tripact would have defeated Komintern before he would launch his attack against the Soviet Union. Hitler was forced to step in and in April 1941 he sended formation of troops into Africa to assist the Italians and launching invasion to Yugoslavia after failing to force Yugoslavia to join the Axis and start war against Komintern. Yugoslavia fell in May after about month of bitter but ineffective resistance.

Operation Barbarossa 22nd June 1941 -9th May 1945

In spring 1941 Hitler is forced to change his plans regarding east. Tripacts poor performance against Komintern failed and now Germany would have to face both communist powers if it wished to continue the war into east. German’s war efforts it were critical to cede the Romanian and Caucasus oil reserves as well as the other rich natural resource areas. As for ideological reasons, attack against the communism was one of the most important factors for Nazi propaganda.
The attack started in 22nd of June. It started at the same time on all fronts. Germans objectives were the Arkangelsk-Astrakan line, basically entire Komintern and all of Soviet Union above it. Germans troops were allocated into four armygroups;

1. Northern Army group (Von Leeb) objective: Leningrad
2. Central Army group (Von Bock) objective: Moscow
3. Southern Army group (Von Runstead) objective: Ukraine
4. Balkan Army group (Rossler) objective: Kosmopol

Komiterns defence was largely based from Romania to south. If tripacts attempts to copy German blitzkrieg were poor, the originator of that warfare style didn’t fail. Germany’s advance was fast and furious and the concentrated use of armour proven superior to Kominterns forces. Germany’s plans were to divide Komitern into three sections, striking to Romania and Ukraine. The initial blow was devastating, Komiterns troops were forced to retreat in all fronts. In south the attack is halted on bitter fights in early august but in Ukraine, Germanys central army group pushes onwards and in September –october most of western Ukraine is taken and Odessa and Krim are cut off when Axis troops take over the coast of Romania and reaches to the sea of Asov in December. In north, Germans fails to take over Moscow as well as they fail to destroy the Odessa-Krim pocket. The frontline is fixed for the winter. Altough Germany’s attack was devastating, it failed to cede the objectives before the winter. Germans are holding most of Ukraine, Romania up until Danube and parts of Macedonia and Bulgaria. Turkeys mass attack against Kosmopol encouraged by the german advance is rebelled.

Komitern and Soviet Union are both in equally despered situation and the two powers signs an alliance pact which prevents neither party to sign a separate peace with the Axis and dividing the efforts and leadership in the fronts. Whereas Soviet had massive tank army prior the attack, Kominterns red army was mostly infantry based. The new alliance determined the resources and abilities of each nation and it was decided that as Soviets could move their industry into the Urals, they would support the “Don Army” as the troops trapped in eastern Ukraine and Caucasus were called. Germany didn’t stand on its feets when the winter was over and begun it’s 1942 spring offensive which pushed the Don Army even further east. In July, Rostov has fallen and German troops are heading to Caucasus and towards Volgograd. The doom of Ukraine is near. Towards the end of the year, Germans 6th army reaches Volgograd, the biggest industrial centre of eastern Komintern. However, the depth of Ukraine and Russia has done their deep and Germany’s advance has spread too far. Don Army, with the support of Soviet south-west front makes a furious counter attack and manages to encircle germany’s troops in Volgograd.

In January 1943 Germany’s 6th army surrenders and the whole war enters to a new phase. Germany’s war machine is finally stopped. During January to march Don Army pushes Germans from Caucasus and retakes Rostov and Kharkov. The whole southern section of troops fighting against Germany is issued under the leadership of Don Army comprising both Soviet and Kominterns troops. In summer 1943 Germany tries to retake the Kursk salient but fails and the initiative is shifted to Komintern and Soviet Union. In the end of 1943, Odessa pocket is released and in November, Kiev is retaken. In December, Komitern and Soviet Union debates how to proceed in next year and it is eventually decided that each nations should continue under own military leadership and the Don Army is melted back to Kominterns red army. Soviet beguns to push towards Poland and East-Prussia and Komitern towards south-west against Hungary and Yugoslavia.

in 1944 Komitern begun two major offensives, in Romania and in the capital to retake Anatolia. In Teheran’s confress, Komitern was willing to sign a separate peace with Turkey if it would offer such so that the main forces could be concentrated on defeating the germans. Operation Merkurius was launched against Turkey where two parallel landings were conducted, in Black sea to cut of the main forces faced against Kosmopol and in Dardanelles. These amphibious assaults combined with paradroppings where one the largest in the whole war after Normandy. Turkeys defence is crushed and their main forces destroyed in the Kosmopol area. After brief discussions with UK and US, Turkey asks peace and is forced to give Armenia and Cyprus to Komintern. In Romania the advance started in may and soon most of Romania is taken back. In September, Komitern starts to advance from Romania and from Macedonia into deep Serbia attempting to encircle and destroy the German Balkan army group. Germans makes ferocious counter attacks and diversion attack from Hungary which is doomed to fail but it gives time to several german units in Balkans to escape the rapidly forming pocket. 15 divisions are however encirceled near Belgrade and destroyed. Germany’s defeat is only matter of time. After bitter struggles, Budapest is finally taken in February 1945. Meanwhile Soviets rolls towards Berlin and Komintern beguns to liberate Yugoslavia. While Soviets were fighting in Berlin, Komitern strikes to Czechoslovakia in order to destroy the central army group, the only remaning concentration of troops able to fight. In 9th of May Prague is taken and the War is over. Germany and the axis are defeated.

War on other fronts 1940-1945

When Tripact attacked Komintern in 1940, Italians begun offensive agaist Egybt hoping to take over Suez and cut Komiterns fleet access to Mediterranean. The plan was unrealistic and the attack is soon defeated. In the counter offensive, Italians are pushed back into Libya and most of the 200 000 men strong army is destroyed. After the failure of Italians, Germany decided to send help to their ally and with Erwin Rommel, Afrikakorps arrives to Libya. When operation Barbarossa begins, Germany attacks in Africa and soon retakes captured Libyan lands. British sends help to Komintern and despite cultural, political and other differences, these two allies by circumstances fight together rebelling the superior German troops. After the second battle of El Alamein, Rommels army is forced to retreat into deep Libya. Komitern gives UK and arriving US troops the responsibility of the African front and sends most of its troops into the mainland.

In Asia, Japan tried to make several failed attacks against Quanghi but managed to occupy Sumatra in late 1942. After Italy’s defeat in 1943, Komintern send the main parts of Red Fleet back to Asia with additional troops. In February 1945 Komintern launched assault to Sumatra and managed to defeat the Japanese defence in June 1945. After that Komitern didn’t actively took part of the fighting’s in the Pacific .

_________________
Coming next: L/M Moskva, some research ships, pr.26bis, Pr.1144 remakes and Project 1143 complete redux.



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Post subject: Re: Byzantine/Komintern AUPosted: July 27th, 2010, 2:09 pm
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After the revolution and forming of Komintern, the warindustry took it's time to get back on tracks. The whole system strating from initial planning down to the actual building and manufacturing was changed and it required alot of mistake-and-learn type of development before the whole cycle was in full work. In the early days of the new nation, naval buildings were mainly finnishing off existing hulls cut in the shipyards at the time of the revolution. Not much new construction and designs emerged before the end of the 20's.

The revolutionary concept of the entire nation gave it's own twist to everything, including naval construction. The old Admirality was replaced with the new People's Counsil of Naval Affairs, PCNA or NSVMA. The old regressional ideas were set aside and the emphasis was given to new and revolutionary ideas. This led to some rather unique and even wild designs and concepts but as a downside, they were mostly completely unworkable and thus designs which ended up to the construction phase were parse. In due of time, the "old" ideas conventional naval designing and planned returned to PCNA in silence.

One of the very first completely new naval designs were the Pr.5* torbedoboats. These were one of the few designs emerging from the new revolutionary ideas in the early days of PCNA. It called small mass-producted torbedoboats for inshore operations to be powered by marine diesel engines. The speed was to be 37 knots and for that, total of 16 dieselengines were fitted. They introduced the new B-1 122mm main gun, modified design of the 120mm gun of imperial days. Alongside two guns, two tripple 450mm torbedotubes were fitted. The design wasen't that succesfull. Huge number of engines took most of the internal space and thus the endurance of these vessels was low. Also the availabilty of the dieselengines was limited and the class was cut to only 7 units of the planned 50!

Pr.5 Aist was followed by the Project 8 Albatros class. It was a new but more conventional design to fullfill the task which the previous class failed to provide. Fitted with two boilers giving 31 knots, these ships were armed with 3 again new 100mm B-5 guns and one triple 450mm torbedotubes. Total 30 units were build and the class was considered rather succesfull. Later part of the class were fitted from the start with the new automatic single A-2 45mm AA guns which became the main anti-aircraft weapon of the red fleet during WWII.

Need for a more general purpose escort and patrol ship for the old colonial areas resulted slightly redesigned Pr. 12 Akula class. It replaced the torbedotubes with more internal space and added better ASW equipmentry. One of the mainguns were also removed and armament consisted 2 B-5 100mm guns, 3 A-2 45mm AA guns and 3 twin A-13 25mm AA guns. This class were build even more numerious quatatives, total of 43 units finnished before the German attack. In service, this class was one of the most heavy duty of all of Komiterns naval vessels, serving in all naval theatres from Blacksea to Far east.

Before the war, plans for a succesor for the Pr. 8 was laid down which called larger and more multifunctional design. This resulted for the pr. 37 Yaguar class which 14 hulls were launched prior the german invasion but was not finnished untill 1943 and 1944. Orginal plans was to fit the ships with 4 B-5 100mm guns but the ships were finnished with 2 new twin B-54 100mm guns and one twin B-58 76mm AA guns. 4 A-2M 45mm guns were carried as well as 4 twin 12,7mm machineguns. One tripple 450mm torbedotubes were fielded as well as ASW gear.


*Komitern fieleded similar project number based listing of naval designs as Soviet Union. Altough no collobration was made, hardly none of the design numbers of each navies were paralel.

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Coming next: L/M Moskva, some research ships, pr.26bis, Pr.1144 remakes and Project 1143 complete redux.



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Post subject: Re: Byzantine/Komintern AUPosted: July 27th, 2010, 2:10 pm
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After the revolution, Komintern was left with only the "D" class destroyers which were considered even relatively modern. Alongside with the D class, 9 of the N class vessels were under construction in various shipyards and in various state of completeness. Those were completed to their original form troughout the following years.

As the shipbuilding and designing resumed towards the end of the 20's, one of the main priorities were new destroyers to replace the old B,V and G classes. As a result became the project 4 "O" class. It was essentially enlargened version of the D class with bigger funnels and superfiring guns both aft and bow. It also featured new fire control set. Armament consisted 4 122mm guns and two tripple 533mm TT. 4 37mm AA guns based on th Vickers design were also carried. Total of 27 were build between 1928 and 1933. These ships were "workhorse" of the red fleet, serving in all naval operation areas troughout the WWII. 6 were lost during the war.

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Coming next: L/M Moskva, some research ships, pr.26bis, Pr.1144 remakes and Project 1143 complete redux.



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Post subject: Re: Byzantine/Komintern AUPosted: July 27th, 2010, 2:10 pm
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At the begining of the 30's, the old "M" class leaders were rebuild under the project 23 program. They recived almoust total rebuild from maindeck up with larger funnels and massive superstructure. Armament was reduced to 5 single 122mm guns, 2 single 76mm AA, 4 single 37mm AA and 2 tripple 533mm TT. The rebuild wasen't completely satisfactory as the increased supersturcture size ment increase of top weight. These ships as well as most of the older generation vessels recived new AAA outfit after the outbreak of WWII.

After the O class, PCNA drafted the requirement of next generation destroyer design. Its paraments were influenced by existence of new powerfull destroyers abroad exspecially Japanese Fubuki class and the French Contre-Torpillerous. TTZ for Pr. 45 called 6 main guns in three twin mounts as well as 40 knot speed. In order to achive the required speed within the limits of the size issued in the TTZ, new High-preassure/high-temperature steam boilers were adopted. Originally total of 48 units were planned to be build but the proplems with the new powerplant heavily dragged these plans down. By the end of 1938 only 15 units were launched as the "P" class. Armament was 3 twin 122mm guns, 4 of the new 45mm AA guns and 2 tripple 533mm TT. After the theeting proplems with the new powerplant were solved, new patch with slightly improved version were laid down known as the "R" class. This varied from the P class mainly by adding additional 5th 45mm AA gun. 13 units were build untill the program was cancelled in 1941 in place of war emergy designs (described later)

The need to awnser to the ever expanding size and performance of foreing destroyers created two series of leaders launched right at the eve of WWII. First of these were the Pr. 35 class leader. It was "tradditional" large destroyer with twin mainguns superfiring in the bow and one twin in the aft. The maingun was the new dual purpose 130mm gun. Enlarged calibre was intended to counter the french 138mm ships. 3 tripple 533mm TT's were carried as well as 4 single 45mm guns and 5 twin 12,7mm AA MG. Three ships were completed between 1939-41.

Project 47 was far more revolutionary awnser to not only to the french superdestroyers but to the small light cruisers of the Capitani Romani class of Italian navy. Pr. 47 was de facto a small cruiser itself and featured traditional cruiser names (after the four largers cities of Komintern). Armament consisted 4 twin 130mm DP guns, 2 qvinted 533mm TT, 4 twin 66K 37mm AA guns (smaller version of the 46k 37mm quad mount, also a cruiser level AA weapon) and one Recce Aircraft. Only two were finnished prior the war and the seccond pair was not completed untill 1944 and 45.

Last series of destroyers laid down during the WWII was the pr. 40 "Z" class. It was new design featuring imporved high-preassure powerplant from the older pr. 45 design. Armament comprised 3 twin 130mm DP mounts and 2 quad 533mm TTs. AA armament consisted 6 new single 45mm mounts. This class was the first destroyer design which featured radar in Komintern inventory. Pr. 40 served as the base for post-war destroyer development in Komintern.

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Coming next: L/M Moskva, some research ships, pr.26bis, Pr.1144 remakes and Project 1143 complete redux.



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